Invited newsletter and book chapter
  1. Lei, Y. and K. Yang, 2017: The cause of rapid lake expansion in the Tibetan Plateau: climate wetting or warming?, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews (WIREs)-Water, 4.

    Briefly summarized the relative importance of precipitation change and glacier retreat in the lake expansion in the inner Tibetan Plateau


  2. Wang, G., H. Fang, G. Ni, K. Yang, C. Cheng, and W. Li, 2016: 大江大河源区河网结构与径流特性研究前沿和重要基础科学问题, Bulletin of National Natural Science Foundation of China , 30(1), 27-33.

    Summarized the fundamental advancements and future strategies in the researches of river networks and runoff characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau.


Journal papers
  1. Chen, Y., K. Yang, J. Qin, Q. Cui, H. Lu, Lazhu, M. Han, and W. Tang, 2017: Evaluation of SMAP, SMOS, and AMSR2 soil moisture retrievals against observations from two networks on the Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122(11), 5780-5792, doi:10.1002/2016JD026388.

    Measurements from two dense soil moisture and temperature networks on the Tibetan Plateau are used to evaluate three operational satellite soil moisture products. The SMAP retrievals underestimate soil moisture but well capture its dynamics on the Tibetan Plateau. This underestimation is due to negative biases in the input of effective soil temperatures


  2. Fang, N., K. Yang, Lazhu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, and L. Zhu, 2017: WRF湖泊模型对青藏高原纳木错湖的适用性研究, Plateau Meteorology, 36(3), 610-618, doi:10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2016.00038.

    The lake model in WRF produces too weak vertical mixing, causing more energy stored in shallow layer and large errors in the simulated lake temperature profile and surface energy budget. Enhancing the vertical mixing can improve the simulation results.


  3. Lei, Y., T. Yao, K. Yang, Y. Sheng, M. Kleinherenbrink, S. Yi, B. Bird, X. Zhang, Lazhu, and G. Zhang, 2017: Lake seasonality across the Tibetan Plateau and their varying relationship with regional mass changes and local hydrology, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(2), 892-900, doi:10.1002/2016GL072062.

    Two patterns of lake level seasonality between the northwestern TP and the other regions are identified; Lake level variations in the central, northern, and northeastern TP are consistent with regional total mass changes; Lake level variations in the northwestern TP deviate from regional total mass changes, indicating internal cryospheric changes play important roles in lake expansion.


  4. Wang, L., J. Zhou, J. Qi, L. Sun, K. Yang, Li. Tian, Y. Lin, W. Liu, M. Shrestha, Y. Xue, T. Koike, Y. Ma, X. Li, Y. Chen, D. Chen, S. Piao, and H. Lu, 2017: Development of a land surface model with coupled snow and frozen soil physics, Water Resour. Res., 53(6), 5085–5103, doi:10.1002/2017WR020451.

    Integrated enthalpy-based snow melting module and soil freezing/thawing module within HydroSiB land surface model


  5. Zhang,G., T. Yao, C. Shum, S. Yi, K. Yang, H. Xie, W. Feng, T. Bolch, L. Wang, A. Behrangi, H. Zhang, W. Wang, Y. Xiang, and J. Yu, 2017: Lake volume and groundwater storage variations in Tibetan Plateaus endorheic basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(11), 5550-5560, doi:10.1002/2017GL073773.

    Explored the mass change of lakes, glaciers, permafrost, underground water in the Inner Tibetan Plateau, and confirmed increase in precipitation is the dominant contributor to the change in lake mass balance


  6. Zhang, G., T. Yao, S. Piao, T. Bolch, H. Xie, D. Chen, Y. Gao, C.M. O'Reilly, C.K. Shum, K. Yang, S. Yi, Y. Lei, W. Wang, Y. He, K. Shang, and X. Yang;, 2017: Extensive and drastically different alpine lake changes on Asia's high plateaus during the past four decades, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(1), 252-260, doi:10.1002/2016GL072033.

    Detected a statistically significant coincidental timing of lake area changes in Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian Plateau, associated with the climate regime shift that occurred during 1997/1998


  7. Sichangi, A., L. Wang, Y. Kun, D. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and D. Kuria, 2016: Estimating continental river basin discharges using multiple remote sensing data sets, Remote Sens. Environ., 179, 36–53, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.019.

    Proposed an innovative method to estimate daily discharges for continental rivers (with river channel widths >800m) using parameters derived from MODIS and altimetry satellites. The discharge estimations using both effective river width and stage information consistently outperform those that only use stage data.


  8. Sichangi, A.W., L. Wang, K. Yang, D. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and D. Kuria, 2016: Estimating continental river basin discharges using multiple remote sensing data sets, Remote Sens. Environ., 179, 36-53, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.019.

    MODIS and satellite altimetry data are used to estimate river discharge. A global evaluation was done for 8 continental rivers showing high accuracy. Using both river stage and effective width records can improve discharge estimates. The new method outperforms previously established multi-variate method.


  9. Wang, L., L. Sun, M. Shrestha, X. Li, W. Liu, J. Zhou, K. Yang, H. Lu, and D. Chen, 2016: Improving Snow Process Modeling with Satellite-Based Estimation of Near-Surface-Air-Temperature Lapse Rate, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(20), 12,005-12,030, doi:10.1002/2016JD025506.

    The near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) can be estimated from MODIS nighttime land surface temperature. The estimated NLR can significantly improve snow melt simulations


  10. Qin, J., L. Zhao, Y. Chen, K. Yang, Y. Yang, Z. Chen, and H. Lu, 2015: Inter-comparison of spatial upscaling methods for evaluation of satellite-based soil moisture, J. Hydrol., 523, 170-178, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.01.061.

    Four mainstream upscaling approaches are inter-compared through the evaluation of satellite-based soil moistures. Different upscaling approaches exhibit distinct performance. The sources for the performance differences are analyzed. Choosing an appropriate upscaling algorithm reduces uncertainties in evaluating satellite-based soil moisture.


  11. Ding, B., K. Yang, J. Qin, L. Wang, Y. Chen, and X. He, 2014: The dependence of precipitation types on surface elevation and meteorological conditions and its parameterization, J. Hydrol., 513, 154-163, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.03.038.

    This study reveals that precipitation types highly depend on surface wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity, and surface elevation. Using these relationships, a new parameterization scheme is developed to discriminate rain, sleet, and snow. Evaluations for China territory show that the new scheme outperforms 11 schemes that are used in hydrological and land surface models.


  12. Lei, Y., K. Yang, B. Wang, Y. Sheng, B.W. Bird, G. Zhang, and L. Tian, 2014: Response of inland lake dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau to climate change, Clim. Change, 125(2), 281-290, doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1175-3.

    We demonstrate that a coherent lake growth on the TP interior (TPI) and a lake shrinkage in southern TP have occurred since the late 1990s. The major cause is that precipitation increased over TPI and decreased over southern TP, although the expansion of some lakes was significantly impacted by accelerated glacier melting. The lake change is a response to significant changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation (e.g. the intensified Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) and the poleward shift of the Eastern Asian westerlies jet stream).


  13. Pan, X., X. Li, K. Yang, J. He, Y. Zhang, and X. Han, 2014: Comparison of downscaled precipitation data over a mountainous watershed-A case study in the Heihe River Basin, J. Hydrometeorol., doi:10.1175/JHM-D-13-0202.1.

    Four regional precipitation products are evaluated for the Heihe River basin with complex terrain. The results indicate current precipitation products generally show similar spatial–temporal patterns in this basin but have varying performances between different subbasins.


  14. Wang, L., X. Li, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and K. Yang, 2014: 青藏高原水文模拟的现状及未来, Advances in Earth Science, 29(6), 674-682, doi:10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.06.0674.

    Introduced current status and perspective for the hydrological modeling in the Tibetan Plateau, and addressed the importance of modeling multi-spheres interactions.


  15. Chen, Y., K. Yang, J. Qin, L. Zhao, W. Tang, and M. Han, 2013: Evaluation of AMSR-E retrievals and GLDAS simulations against observations of a soil moisture network on the central Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(10), 4466-4475, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50301.

    In this study, four AMSR-E soil moisture products and four GLDAS land surface modeling products are evaluated against observations from the Naqu SMTMS network. None of the AMSR-E products provides reliable estimates in the unfrozen season, indicating that the retrieval algorithms have much space to be improved for the cold semi-arid regions. The four GLDAS models tend to systematically underestimate the surface soil moisture, which can be attributed to the absence of soil organic carbon induced stratification of soil properties in the land surface models.


  16. Lei, Y., T. Yao, B. Bird, K. Yang, J. Zhai, and Y. Sheng, 2013: Coherent lake growth on the central Tibetan Plateau since the 1970s: Characterization and attribution, J. Hydrol., 483, 61-67, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.003.

    Lakes on the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) expanded significantly in recent decades, and this study tried to clarify its cause. We show that increased precipitation and runoff, and decreased lake evaporation were the main causes for the coherent lake growth and could contribute by about 70% of total increase in lake storage.


  17. Xue, B., L. Wang, K. Yang, L. Tian, J. Qin, Y. Chen, L. Zhao, Y. Ma, T. Koike, Z. Hu, and X. Li, 2013: Modeling the land surface water and energy cycles of a mesoscale watershed in the central Tibetan Plateau during summer with a distributed hydrological model, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(16), 8857-8868, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50696.

    The surface energy and water budgets in Naqu River basin of the central Tibetan Plateau are simulated with a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The simulated results are effectively validated against observations of river discharge, energy flux, multi-sites soil moisture, and satellite land surface temperature, indicating that the model has the capacity to simulate the complex hydrological processes on the Plateau.


  18. Xue, B., L. Wang, X. Li, K. Yang, D. Chen, and L. Sun, 2013: Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimates for two river basins on the Tibetan Plateau by a water balance method, J. Hydrol., 492, 290-297, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.04.005.

    This study estimates E Evapotranspiration (E) for the upper Yellow River and Yangtze River basins on the Tibetan Plateau. Results indicate that annual terrestrial water storage change in the two basins is negligible, and basin-scale E can be reliably estimated by the difference between precipitation and runoff. The E estimated by the water balance method is then used to evaluate four E products and their errors are explored.


  19. Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y. Chen, W. Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C. Lin, M. Han, and H. Vereecken., 2013: Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture observations within a Tibetan mesoscale area and its implication to regional soil moisture measurements, J. Hydrol., 482, 92-104, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.033.

    A mesoscale soil moisture/temperature monitoring network was established on the Tibetan Plateau. Based on in-situ soil moisture measurements, the number of required sites and the most representative site were obtained through random sampling analysis and time stability study, respectively. Their sensitivity to different temporal scales and soil wetness conditions were also discussed. At last, the combination of a few optimally selected sites was found able to give more robust estimate of areal mean soil moisture than a single site does.


  20. Ding, Y., S. Liu, F. Liu, D. Yang, T. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Shen, K. Yang, and S. Zhang, 2012: 中国寒区水文学研究的新阶段——记我国杰出寒区水文学家叶柏生研究员的创新与贡献, J. Glaciology and Geocryology, 34(5), 1009-1020.

    Briefly introduced Prof. Baisheng Ye's major contributions to cold-region hydrology


  21. Wang, F., L. Wang, T. Koike, H. Zhou, K. Yang, A. Wang, and W. Li, 2011: Evaluation and application of a fine-resolution global dataset in a semiarid mesoscale river basin with a distributed biosphere hydrological model, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D21108, doi:10.1029/2011JD015990.

    This study evaluated GLDAS forcing data and applied GLDAS forcing data to drive Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM) in a semiarid meso-scale basin in NE China. The GLDAS is of high quality for monthly precipitation, air temperature, longwave radiation, while it overestimates monthly shortwave radiation. WEB-DHM can reproduce daily discharge, 8-day LST and monthly surface soil moisture (point scale) fairly well.


  22. Yang, K., B. Ye, D. Zhou, B. Wu, T. Foken, J. Qin, and Z. Zhou, 2011: Response of hydrological cycle to recent climate changes in the Tibetan Plateau, Clim. Change, 109(3-4), 517-534, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0099-4.

    This study investigated how climate changes influenced the hydrological cycle on the TP during 1984~2006. To facilitate the analysis, a land surface model was used to simulate surface water budget at all CMA (China Meteorological Administration) stations on the TP. The simulated results were first validated against observed ground temperature and observation-derived heat flux on the western TP and observed discharge trends on the eastern TP. The response of evaporation and runoff to the climate changes was then analyzed.


  23. Yang, W., X. Guo, T. Yao, K. Yang, L. Zhao, S. Li, and M. Zhu, 2011: Summertime surface energy budget and ablation modeling in the ablation zone of a maritime Tibetan glacier, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D14116, doi:10.1029/2010JD015183.

    The surface energy budget and ablation were measured in the ablation zone of Parlung No.4 Glacier on the southeast Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer 2009. The present study examines the summertime surface energy fluxes to identify major atmospheric variables governing the surface melt and their phenomenological links to the progression of the South Asian monsoon.


  24. Saavedra, O., T. Koike, K. Yang, and D. Yang, 2010: Optimal Dam Operation during Flood Season Using a Distributed Hydrological Model and a Heuristic Algorithm, J. Hydrol. Eng., 15(7), 580-586, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000212.

    A physically based distributed hydrological model is coupled with an optimization algorithm for joint dam operation to reduce the flood peaks downstream. The observed weather radar products from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System were input to the hydrological model to simulate the discharge within the river network. The proposed integrated operation can effectively reduce a flood peak suggesting the feasibility of real-time operation in future developments.


  25. Saavedra, O., T. Koike, K. Yang, T. Graf, X. Li, L. Wang, and X. Han, 2010: Decision support for dam release during floods using a distributed biosphere hydrological model driven by quantitative precipitation forecasts, Water Resour. Res., 46, W10544, doi:10.1029/2010WR009502.

    This study proposes a decision support system for real-time dam operation during heavy rainfall. It uses an operational mesoscale quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) to force a hydrological model and considers the forecast error from the previous time step, which is introduced as a perturbation range applied to the most recent QPF. A prototype was applied to the Tone reservoir system and the results indicate that the developed decision support system is feasible for real-life dam operation.


  26. Wang, L., T. Koike, K. Yang, R. Jin, and H. Li, 2010: Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 557-571, doi:10.5194/hess-14-557-2010.

    A frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.


  27. Wang, L., T. Koike, D. Yang, and K. Yang, 2009: Improving the hydrology of the Simple Biosphere Model 2 and its evaluation within the framework of a distributed hydrological model, Hydrol. Sci. J., 54(6), 989-1006, doi:10.1623/hysj.54.6.989.

    First, the SiB2 three-layer soil model is replaced with a multi-layer soil column coupled to a lumped unconfined aquifer model. Next, lateral water flows are described in the updated soil model. Finally, the soil hydraulic function in SiB2 is replaced with van Genuchten parameterization, and exponential vertical soil heterogeneity is described. The improved version HydroSiB2 can be coupled with mesoscale atmospheric models for improved water and energy flux predictions.


  28. Wang, L., T. Koike, K. Yang, T. Jackson, R. Bindlish, and D. Yang, 2009: Development of a distributed biosphere hydrological model and its evaluation with the Southern Great Plains Experiments (SGP97 and SGP99), J. Geophys. Res. atmos., 114, D08107, doi:10.1029/2008JD010800.

    A distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM) has been developed by fully coupling a biosphere scheme (SiB2) with a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM). And the WEB-DHM was calibrated and validated for the Little Washita Basin using field observations from SGP97 and SGP99.


  29. Wang, L., T. Koike, K. Yang, and P. Yeh, 2009: Assessment of a distributed biosphere hydrological model against streamflow and MODIS land surface temperature in the upper Tone River Basin, J. Hydrol., 377(1-2), 21-34, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.08.005.

    A distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM) which couples a biosphere scheme (SiB2) with a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM), is applied to the upper Tone River Basin where flux observations are not available. After being calibrated with discharge data, WEB-DHM is assessed against observed streamflows at four major gauges and MODIS LST.


  30. Yang, K., Y. Hong, X. Zhou, and Y. Li, 2000: Study on anisotropic buoyant turbulence model, J. Appl. Math. Mech., 21(1), 43-48, doi:10.1007/BF02458538.

    A non-linear anisotropy buoyant turbulence model was developed by applying linearity of equilibrium hypothesis to Reynolds stress transports . The model avoids numerical singularity and its reliability is verified by the comparisons between predictions and experimental data.