发表论著
关于陆面过程的文章

Invited newsletter and book chapter
  1. Chen, Y. and K. Yang, 2013: Land Surface Process Study and Modeling in Drylands and High-Elevation Regions (Chapter 4), in Land Surface Observation, Modeling and Data Assimilation, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 91-124.
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    Drylands and high-elevation regions have sensitive responses to global changes. Land–atmosphere interactions in these regions also play an essential role in atmospheric circulation. However, some key processes of land–atmosphere interactions in these regions remain to be understood. In this chapter, we introduce existing problems of land surface modeling in drylands and high-elevation regions (mainly with reference to the Tibetan Plateau) and the efforts to resolve these issues, including the following three aspects.

    旱区和高海拔地区是全球变化的敏感响应区,这些地区的陆-气相互作用对大气环流有重要影响。尽管如此,我们对旱区和高海拔地区的陆-气相互作用中的一些关键过程的理解还很不充分。本章将主要介绍旱区和高海拔区(主要指青藏高原)陆面过程模拟中存在的一些问题,以及针对这些问题所做的一些改进。

  2. Chen, Y. and K. Yang, 2011: Parameterizing thermal roughness length is crucial for dryland energy budget modeling, GEWEX News, 21(1), 5-6.
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    This newsletter indicates that parameterizing thermal roughness length is crucial for modeling surface temperature and energy budget in arid regions.The revised Noah LSM with a novel z0h scheme that was developed based on experimental data analysis can simulate surface temperature and sensible heat fluxes simultaneously. See details in Chen et al. (2010, JHM).

    指出热粗糙度参数化对在干旱地区模拟地表温度和能量预算的重要性。基于实验数据,改进了的Noah LSM能够很好地模拟地表温度和感热通量。相关研究已发表于Chen et al. (2010, JHM)。

  3. Yang, K., 2009: Diurnal variations of thermal roughness length and its importance for land surface modeling in dry regions, AsiaFlux Newsletter, 30, 10-14.
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    This newsletter indicates that diurnal variations of thermal roughness length, a key parameter in estimating surface heat flux, are a widely existing phenomenon. Considering the variations is crucial modeling land surface processes for dry lands. A series of publications are Yang et al. (2009, HESS), Chen et al. (2010, JHM), and Chen et al. (2011, JGR).

    通过1998年至今的一系列试验,发现对地表热通量估计极其重要的热力粗糙度具有明显的日变化。我们证明对改日变化的合理参数化对干旱区陆面过程模拟具有决定性意义。相关研究已发表于Yang et al. (2009, HESS), Chen et al. (2010, JHM), 以及 Chen et al. (2011, JGR).

  4. Yang, K., M. Rasmy, S. Rauniyar, and T. Koike, 2006: Inter-comparisons of prediction skill of operational GCMs and a land data assimilation system, CEOP Newsletter, 10, 3-5.
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    CEOP integrated high-resolution and high-accuracy in situ data, satellite products, and model output. This newsletter summarizes some preliminary results of global comparisons between four GCMs and in situ data and pointed out the models’ deficiencies. A full report may be found in Yang et al. (2007, JMSJ).

    CEOP集成了全球大量的高分辨率高精度野外台站数据、卫星数据和模拟数据。我们总结了应用野外台站数据评估模型性能的研究成果。相关研究已发表于Yang et al. (2007, JMSJ)。


ISI-indexed journal papers
  1. Bao, H., T. Koike, K. Yang, L. Wang, M. Shrestha, and P. Lawford, 2016: Development of an enthalpy-based frozen soil model and its validation in a cold region in China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(10), 5259-5280, doi:10.1002/2015JD024451.
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    An enthalpy-based frozen soilmodel was developed to simulatefreezing/thawing processes efficiently The frozen soil model was validatedagainst soil observations from apermafrost station The model simulation is in goodagreement with the observed soilfreezing/thawing characteristics

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  2. Lazhu, K. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Lei, Y. Chen, L. Zhu, B. Ding, and J. Qin, 2016: Quantifying evaporation and its decadal change for Lake Nam Co, central Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(16), 7578-7591, doi:10.1002/2015JD024523.
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    Evaporation of Nam Co is simulated by Flake model with good accuracy Simulated evaporation is much less than Penman-equation-derived one for the deep lake The evaporation change played a role in suppressing the recent expansion of Nam Co

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  3. Li, X., K. Yang, and Y. Zhou, 2016: Progress in the study of oasis-desert interactions, Agric. For. Meteorol., 230-231, 1-7, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.08.022.
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    Advanced observing systems were constructed in an oasis-desert area in China. “Oasis effect” and “desert effect” are two major components of oasis-desert interactions. The structure of energy and water exchange within oases is explored.

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  4. Wang, L., X. Li, Y. Chen, K. Yang, D. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Qi, and J. Huang, 2016: Validation of the global land data assimilation system based on measurements of soil temperature profiles, Agric. For. Meteorol., 218-219, 288-297, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.01.003.
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    The GLDAS soil temperature profile data are validated in grassland globally. Noah driven by GLDAS is found skillful while CLM overestimates soil temperatures. Better thermal conductivity scheme and forcings could improve the data quality.

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  5. Wang, X., S. Yi, Q. Wu, K. Yang, and Y. Ding, 2016: The role of permafrost and soil water in distribution of alpine grassland and its NDVI dynamics on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Global Planet. Change, 147, 40-53, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.10.014.
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    The NDVI trend and distribution of alpine grassland at plateau scale were studied. They were analyzed in relation to permafrost, soil moisture and LST-NDVI. Permafrost and soil moisture were important for grassland distribution and change. The LST-NDVI relationship only explained < 50% variation of vegetation changing trend. Other factors may overwhelm hydro-thermal conditions in affecting vegetation growth.

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  6. Yang, K., Lazhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhao, J. Qin, H. Lu, W. Tang, M. Han, B. Ding, and N. Fang, 2016: Land surface model calibration through microwave data assimilation for improving soil moisture simulations, J. Hydrol., 533, 266–276, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.018.
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    A satellite data-based method for land surface model calibration is presented to improve soil moisture simulation. The effectiveness of this new method is demonstrated in three grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the Mongolian Plateau. The method may be applied to other regions.

    本研究建立了一个基于卫星资料的陆面过程模型校正方法,经在青藏高原和蒙古高原上的验证表明,该方法可以有效提高对土壤水分的模拟。该方法适用于其他区域。

  7. Guo, X., H. Liu, and K. Yang, 2015: On the Application of the Priestley–Taylor Relation on Sub-daily Time Scales, Bound.-Layer Meteor., 156(3), 489-499, doi:10.1007/s10546-015-0031-y.
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    Based on turbulent heat flux observations over a reservoir and a glacier, we investigate the sub-daily variations in the Priestley–Taylor parameter for saturated surfaces. The results indicate that the heat transfer direction (upward or downward) significantly affects the performance of the Priestley–Taylor relation at sub-daily scale.

    利用水库和冰川表面的感热和潜热通量观测资料,我们分析了Priestley–Taylor公式中参数的日变化,发现传热方向(向上或向下)对该公式的通量估计精度有很大影响。

  8. Shen, M., S. Piao, S. Jeong, L. Zhou, Z. Zeng, P. Ciais, D. Chen, M. Huang, C. Jin, L. Li, Y. Li, R. Myneni, K. Yang, G. Zhang, and , 2015: Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 112(30), 9299-9304, doi:10.1073/pnas.1504418112.
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    In the Arctic, previous studies have shown that enhanced vegetation growth decreases albedo and amplifies warming. In contrast, on the Tibetan Plateau, increased vegetation activity may attenuate daytime warming by enhancing evapotranspiration (ET), a cooling process.

    在北极全球变暖导致植被变好,植被进一步降低反照率,从而放大变暖效应。本研究发现植被在青藏高原可以通过增强蒸发而导致感热减弱,从而削弱升温幅度。

  9. Chen, X., Z. Su, Y. Ma, K. Yang, and B. Wang, 2013: Estimation of surface energy fluxes under complex terrain of Mt. Qomolangma over the Tibetan Plateau, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1607-1618, doi:10.5194/hess-17-1607-2013.
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    Excess resistance parameterization developed by Yang et al. (2008) was introduced into the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) developed by Su et al. (2002) to improve the estimation of heat transfer over bare soil surfaces. Better performance was shown for typical land surfaces (bare soil, sparse canopy, dense canopy, and snow surface) on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Yang et al. (2008)发展的传热附加阻力参数化方案被引入Su et al. (2002)发展的SEBS中,通过在青藏高原的各种下垫面(裸地、稀疏植被、浓密植被、雪面)的观测资料对比,表明可以提高湍流热通量的计算精度。

  10. Chen, Y., K. Yang, W. Tang, J. Qin, and L. Zhao, 2012: Parameterizing soil organic carbon's impacts on soil porosity and thermal parameters for Eastern Tibet grasslands, Sci. China Ser. D, 55(6), 1001-1011, doi:10.1007/s11430-012-4433-0.
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    This study investigates the stratification of soil thermal properties induced by soil organic carbon (SOC) and its impacts on the parameterization of the thermal properties. Measured data indicate that the topsoils of alpine grasslands contain high SOC contents than underlying soil layers, which leads to higher soil porosity values and lower thermal conductivity and bulk density values in the topsoils. A new parameterization is developed to take the impacts of SOC into account. The new one can well estimate the soil thermal conductivity values in both low and high SOC content cases. The measured data can be provided upon request.

    调查了土壤有机碳引起的土壤性质的分层现象;测量数据显示高寒草地表层土壤的有机碳含量高于底层土壤,导致表层土壤具有较高孔隙度以及较低的导热率和容重。发展了一个考虑土壤有机碳影响的导热率参数化方案,该方案能较好估算各种有机碳含量的土壤的导热率。如需测量数据,可与作者联系。

  11. Song, Y., J. Wang, K. Yang, M. Ma, X. Li, Z. Zhang, and X. Wang, 2012: A revised surface resistance parameterisation for estimating latent heat flux from remotely sensed data, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 17, 76-84, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2011.10.011.
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    With the support of Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) project, a biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to account for the effect of water stress and temperature on crop evapotranspiration.

    应用2008年黑河实验数据,本文修改了一个基于生物物理过程的叶孔表面阻力模型,以考虑水限制和温度对作物蒸散发的影响

  12. Chen, Y., K. Yang, J. He, J. Qin, J. Shi, J. Du, and Q. He, 2011: Improving land surface temperature modeling for dry land of China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D20104, doi:10.1029/2011JD015921.
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    This paper presents two improvements of Noah land surface modeling for China’s drylands: (1) The replacement of the model’s thermal roughness length (z0h) scheme with a new one, and (2) developing new forcing data for China. The two improvements reduced the biases in surface temperature by about 6 K on average.

    介绍了Noah模型对中国干旱半干旱区地表过程模拟的两个改进:(1)用一个新的热力学粗糙度(z0h)方案替换了Noah模型中的原有方案;(2)使用了新发展的ITPCAS驱动数据。结果显示: Noah模型中的高达6K的地表温度平均偏差基本消除。

  13. Guo, X., K. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yang, S. Li, M. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Chen, 2011: Critical Evaluations of Scalar Roughness Length Parameterizations over a Melting Valley Glacier, Bound.-Layer Meteor., 139(2), 307-332, doi:10.1007/s10546-010-9586-9.
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    Based on quality-controlled measurements over a melting valley glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, three parameterization schemes of the scalar roughness length are evaluated. One of them is recommended.

    基于经过质量控制的、青藏高原上一个山谷冰川消融区的观测通量数据,评估了三个热力(标量)粗糙度参数化方案,并推荐了其中之一。

  14. Chen, Y., K. Yang, D. Zhou, J. Qin, and X. Guo, 2010: Improving the Noah Land Surface Model in Arid Regions with an Appropriate Parameterization of the Thermal Roughness Length, J. Hydrometeorol., 54(6), 989-1006, doi:10.1175/2010JHM1185.1.
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    Daytime land surface temperatures in arid and semiarid regions are typically not well simulated in current land surface models (LSMs); the unreasonable presentation of thermal roughness length (z0h) is found to be the reason. Noah model was revised based on an evaluation of six z0h schemes. The revised model can well simulate surface temperature and sensible heat flux simultaneously. The revised model benefits from the successful modeling of the diurnal variation of z0h, which the original model cannot produce.

    当前的陆面过程模型通常容易低估干旱半干旱区白天的地表温度;原因是模式中的热力学粗糙度方案不合理。本文在评估6种热力学粗糙度方案的基础上,用一个新的方案成功地改进了Noah模型。改进的模型能同时较好的模拟地表温度和感热通量。改进模型得益于成功模拟了热力学粗糙度的日变化,而原模型则不能。

  15. Lu, L., S. Liu, Z. Xu, K. Yang, X. Cai, L. Jia, and J. Wang, 2009: The Characteristics and Parameterization of Aerodynamic Roughness Length over Heterogeneous Surfaces, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26(1), 180-190, doi:10.1007/s00376-009-0180-3.
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    This paper calculated aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) over several land surfaces with experimental data from Xiaotangshan. The results show that z0m is direction-dependent, mainly due to the heterogeneity of the size and spatial distribution of the roughness elements inside the source area along different wind directions. Furthermore, a heuristic parameterization of the z0m for heterogeneous surfaces is proposed.

    本文基于小汤山实验数据计算了几种下垫面的动力学粗糙度(z0m)。结果显示z0m依赖于风向,原因是不同风向源区的大小以及地物的空间分布不同。此外,还提出了一种估算复杂地表z0m的方案。

  16. Ma, Y., Y. Wang, R. Wu, Z. Hu, K. Yang, M. Li, W. Ma, L. Zhong, F. Sun, X. Chen, Z. Zhu, S. Wang, and H. Ishikawa, 2009: Recent advances on the study of atmosphere-land interaction observations on the Tibetan Plateau, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1103-1111, doi:10.5194/hess-13-1103-2009.
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    The Tibetan Observation and Research Platform (TORP) are introduced. The recent observed characteristics of land fluxes, atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent characteristics were summarized.

    介绍了青藏高原观测与研究平台(TORP),总结了近期高原上的一些观测分析结果,包括地表湍流通量和CO2通量的特征,大气和土壤变量的变化特征,大气边界层结构和湍流特征等。

  17. Yang, K., Y. Chen, and J. Qin, 2009: Some practical notes on the land surface modeling in the Tibetan Plateau, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 687-701, doi:10.5194/hess-13-687-2009.
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    This study evaluated performance of three land surface models (LSMs) for the Tibetan Plateau. Two modeling deficiencies identified are the underestimation of the topsoil soil moisture of alpine grassland (due to failure to represent the soil organic matter induced soil stratification) and the underestimation of the ground-air temperature gradient in alpine deserts (due to inappropriate excess resistance parameterization). New advances in SiB2 was presented.

    评估了三种主流陆面过程模型在青藏高原的模拟性能。发现了模型(1)由于不能表达有机质引起的土壤性质的分层现象,从而明显低估了高寒草地表层土壤的含水量;(2)由于不合理的传热阻抗方案导致了高寒荒漠区感热高估、地气温差低估。最后介绍了作者改进的SiB2。

  18. Yang, K., T. Koike, H. Ishikawa, J. Kim, X. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Ma, and J. Wang, 2008: Turbulent Flux Transfer over Bare-Soil Surfaces: Characteristics and Parameterization, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 40(1), 276-290, doi:10.1175/2007JAMC1547.1.
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    This paper presented a comprehensive analysis on characteristics of heat transfer over bare-soil surfaces in arid and semi-arid regions and an extensive evaluation of several schemes in the literature. It is found that diurnal variations of the parameter kB-1 [=ln(z0m/z0h)] is a common phenomenon, with higher values during the day and lower values at night. This diurnal variation is particularly evident on the Tibetna Plateau surfaces. A scheme that can produce the diurnal variation of kB-1 generally performs satisfactorily.

    本文综合分析了干旱半干旱地区裸露地表的地表传热特征,发现参数kB-1具有明显的日变化特征,白天高夜间低,是一个普遍现象,在青藏高原地区尤为突出。在较为光滑的地表,夜晚的kB-1会出现负值,现有的空气动力学粗糙表面的理论尚无法解释这种现象。仅有利用能反映kB-1日变化的方案做通量参数化时,估计通量才能和观测通量广泛一致。

  19. Yang, K. and J. Wang, 2008: A temperature prediction-correction method for estimating surface soil heat flux from soil temperature and moisture data, Sci. China Ser. D, 51(5), 721-729, doi:10.1007/s11430-008-0036-1.
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    A new method is developed to estimate soil heat flux from soil temperature and moisture observations. The new method does not require the soil thermal conductivity, and the results obtained with it are not very sensitive to the availability of temperature data in the topsoil.

    发展了一种基于观测土壤温度和湿度资料计算土壤热通量的新方法。该方法首先使用热扩散方程获得土壤的温度剖面,接着用观测的土壤温度数据校正计算获得的温度剖面,最后将校正后的温度剖面积分获得土壤的热通量。新方法不需要提供土壤导热率,而且计算结果对可提供几层上层土壤的温度观测参与计算并不敏感。

  20. Ma, Y., M. Song, H. Ishikawa, K. Yang, T. Koike, L. Jia, M. Menenti, and Z. Su, 2007: Estimation of the regional evaporative fraction over the Tibetan Plateau area by using Landsat-7 ETM data and the field observations, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85A, 295-309, doi:10.2151/jmsj.85A.295.
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    This study proposed a parameterization methodology based on Landsat-7 ETM data and filed observations and tested it for deriving an evaporative fraction over a heterogeneous landscape. This methodology has been applied to the experimental area of CAMP/Tibet.

    提出并验证了一种基于Landsat-7 ETM和地面观测资料估算复杂下垫面的蒸发比的方法。该方法被用于CAMP/Tibet实验区。

  21. Yang, K. and T. Koike, 2005: Comments on "Estimating Soil Water Contents from Soil Temperature Measurements by Using an Adaptive Kalman Filter", J. Appl. Meteorol., 44(4), 546-550, doi:10.1175/JAM2215.1.
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    This note pointed out that estimating soil water content from soil temperature measurements can be risky. Soil thermal diffusivity is not monotonically dependent on soil water content, and thus, such a estimation may result in multiple solutions.

    这篇评论指出基于土壤温度测量估算土壤湿度会出现多解的情况,因为热扩散系数不是土壤湿度的单调函数。

  22. Yang, K., T. Koike, B. Ye, and L. Bastidas, 2005: Inverse analysis of the role of soil vertical heterogeneity in controlling surface soil state and energy partition, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 110, D08101, doi:10.1029/2004JD005500.
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    For the first time, this study addressed the importance of soil vertical stratification in the land-atmosphere interactions on the central and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The soil stratification was caused due to slow decomposition of organic matters. The topsoils, therefore, contain dense vegetation roots and soil organic matters, which significantly change the soil thermal and hydraulic properties.

    第一次提出了青藏高原中东部的高寒草甸土壤分层在高原陆气相互作用中起着重要作用。由于高原温度低,有机质分解慢,导致了土壤表层根系发达、有机质累积,从而明显改变了土壤的水力学和热力学性质,与下层形成鲜明对比。

  23. Yang, K., T. Koike, H. Ishikawa, and Y. Mao, 2004: Analysis of the surface energy budget at a site of GAME/Tibet using a single-source model, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82(1), 131-153, doi:10.2151/jmsj.82.131.
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    The surface energy balance closure in rainy season was investigated for a site (Anduo) on the Tibetan Plateau. We pointed out that the measured latent heat flux was untrustable due to an instrumental limitation. A single-source land surface model was developed that can be used to simulate land fluxes on the Plateau sparse-vegetation surfaces.

    本文分析了青藏高原安多站雨季的能量闭合问题,指出仪器的缺陷导致了雨期的潜热通量观测出现问题。我们发展了一个单源陆面过程模型可用于模拟青藏高原稀疏草地的能量通量。

  24. Yang, K., T. Koike, and D. Yang, 2003: Surface flux parameterization in the Tibetan Plateau, Bound.-Layer Meteor., 106(2), 245-262, doi:10.1023/A:1021152407334.
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    This study pointed out that the thermal roughness lengths on the Tibetan Plateau surfaces have outstanding diurnal variations. An optimization approach was proposed to estimate aerodynamic roughness length that varies with vegetation growing.

    调查了青藏高原上近地层通量参数化方案中的一些基本量,特别是指出了高原地表热力粗糙度有明显的日变化。提出了一个基于风温廓线估算不断变化下垫面的动力学粗糙度的优化估算方法。

  25. Yang, K., T. Koike, H. Fujii, K. Tamagawa, and N. Hirose, 2002: Improvement of surface flux parameterizations with a turbulence-related length, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128(584), 2073-2088, doi:10.1256/003590002320603548.
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    A new parameterization scheme for surface turbulent flux estimation was developed to consider the diurnal variations of thermal roughness length by introducing a turbulence-related length. This scheme is widely applicable to surfaces covered by bare soil or short vegetation.

    通过引入一个湍流相关的高度,发展了估算地表湍流通量的新参数化方案。该方案可以反映广泛观测到的热力粗糙度的日变化,适用于裸露地表或稀疏低矮植被覆盖地表。

  26. Yang, K., N. Tamai, and T. Koike, 2001: Analytical solution of surface layer similarity equation, J. Appl. Meteorol., 40(9), 1647-1653, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1647:ASOSLS>2.0.CO;2.
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    This paper derived the exact solution of the stability parameter equation for a stable surface layer and proposes an approximate analytical solution for an unstable surface layer. The solution can improve the computational efficiency of flux parameterization and is applicable in a wide range of z/z0 (50-104) and z0/zT (from less than 1 to greater than 104).

    提出了获得稳定边界层条件下精确解和不稳定条件下近似解析解的方法。该方法能提高参数化方法计算湍流通量的效率,可适用于不同下垫面条件(z/z0大于50小于104,以及z0/zT 从小于1到大于104)。




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