发表论著
关于气象的文章

Invited newsletter and book chapter
  1. Yang, K., 2017: Observed Regional Climate Change in Tibet over the Last Decades, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science, 1-41, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.587.
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    Presented a comprehensive review on major climate changes occurring since the 1980s, summarized their impacts on water and energy cycle, and recommended several research foci in future studies

    系统总结了青藏高原自1980s年代以来气候变化的主要特征,以及气候变化对能量和水循环的影响,并推荐了今后的重点研究方向

  2. Yang, K., X. Li, and T. Koike, 2010: Report on the CAS-CEOP Lhasa workshop, GEWEX News, 20(3), 5.
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    This report describes the event of "The 2nd CAS-CEOP International Workshop on Energy and Water Cycle over the Tibetan Plateau and High-elevations", which was held at Lhasa, 19-21, August, 2010. More than 70 foreign and 70 domestic participants joined the meeting. The meeting was organized by ITPCAS and co-sponsored by CAS, NSFC, CEOP-WEBS and CEOP AEGIS.

    报告了2010年8月在拉萨举办的“第二届青藏高原和高海拔地区能量与水循环国际研讨会”的盛况,包括70余名国外学者和70余名国内学者参加了本次会议。会议由中国科学院青藏高原研究所主办,并得到中国科学院、国家基金委、GEWEX/CEOP、以及欧盟第七框架项目支持。


Journal papers
  1. Ouyang, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y. Wang, and H. Lu, 2017: 喜马拉雅山区降水研究进展与展望, Plateau Meteorology, 36(5), NULL, doi:10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2016.00111.
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    Presented current understanding to the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation in Himalayan Mountains, and recommended to enhance observing networks in high elevations

    分析了喜马拉雅山区降水时空变化研究的进展,建议优先加强高海拔区域的观测研究

  2. Wang, Y., K. Yang, Z. Pan, J. Qin, D. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Chen, Lazhu, W. Tang, M. Han, N. Lu, and H. Wu, 2017: Evaluation of Precipitable Water Vapor from Four Satellite Products and Four Reanalysis Datasets against GPS Measurements on the Southern Tibetan Plateau, J. Climate, 30(15), 5699-5713, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0630.1.
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    Based on precipitable water (PWV) data derived from nine GPS stations during seven summer monsoon seasons, we found that current reanalysis products can produce the seasonal variations of PWV in the South Tibetan Plateau but they always over-estimate PWV values. This implies that current climate models have positive biases in water vapor transfer from South Asia to the Tibetan Plateau through Himalayan Mountains.

    基于在高原南部建立的9个地基GPS观测站7个季风期的观测,发现所有再分析资料虽然能反映可降水量的季节变化,但均高估青藏高原南部的可降水量,意味着当前模型高估了南亚水汽翻越喜马拉雅山进入青藏高原南部的水汽量。

  3. Zhou, X., K. Yang, and Y. Wang, 2017: Implementation of a Turbulent Orographic Form Drag Scheme in WRF and Its Application to the Tibetan Plateau, Climate Dynamics, 48, 106-115, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3677-y.
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  4. Jiang, X., Y. Li, S. Yang, K. Yang, and J. Chen, 2016: Interannual variation of summer atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau and the role of convection around the western Maritime Continent, J. Climate, 29(1), 121-138, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0181.1.
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    Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the total heat (TH) source over the TP in June are different from those in July and August. Large TH is accompanied by a cyclone centered over the South China Sea in June, which is replaced by an anticyclone in July and August.

    探讨了高原夏季总热源变化的机理,指出影响6月和7-8月热源的周边环流不同,特别强调了潜热加热的重要性。

  5. Wang, L., L. Sun, M. Shrestha, X. Li, W. Liu, J. Zhou, K. Yang, H. Lu, and D. Chen, 2016: Improving Snow Process Modeling with Satellite-Based Estimation of Near-Surface-Air-Temperature Lapse Rate, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(20), 12,005-12,030, doi:10.1002/2016JD025506.
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    Distributed snow modeling at a large, cold river basin (upper Yellow River Basin) Lapse rate has a great impact on the snow and streamflow simulations Satellite-based estimates of lapse rate lead to improved snow process modeling

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  6. Lu, N., J. Qin, Y. Gao, K. Yang, K.E. Trenberth, M. Gehne, and Y. Zhu, 2015: Trends and variability in atmospheric precipitable water over the Tibetan Plateau for 2000–2010, Int. J. Climatol., 35(7), 1394-1404, doi:10.1002/joc.4064.
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    Positive change in precipitable water in NE-Tibetan Plateau and negative change in SW-Tibetan Plateau during 2000-2010 are found, which implies wetting trend in NE-Plateau while drying trend in SW-Plateau.

    发现2000-2010年间可降水量在青藏高原东北部增加而在西南部减少,可能导致了东北部高原变湿润而西南部高原变干旱。

  7. Lu, N., K.E. Trenberth, J. Qin, K. Yang, and L. Yao, 2015: Detecting Long-Term Trends in Precipitable Water over the Tibetan Plateau by Synthesis of Station and MODIS Observations, J. Climate, 28(4), 1707-1722, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00303.1.
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    The monthly-mean precipitable water (PW) from MODIS and 63 stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are used to constructed a Bayesian estimation model, and the model is used to estimate continuous monthly-mean PW for 1970–2011. The constructed data shows a significant increasing trend in annual PW for the TP during the 42 years and the most significant increase occurred for 1986–99.

    利用MODIS的月均可降水量和63个青藏高原站点信息建立了一个贝叶斯估计模型。该模型估计了1970-2011年间连续的月均可降水量数据。数据表明在这42年中可降水量有显著上升趋势,最大的上升发生在1986-1999年间。

  8. Wu, H., K. Yang, X. Niu, and Y. Chen, 2015: The role of cloud height and warming in the decadal weakening of atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau, Sci. China Ser. D., 58(3), 395–403, doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4973-6.
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    Using surface observations and satellite radiation data, the study finds that the Tibetan Plateau may be another important window that gets rid of excessive energy from the climate system. This enhanced energy loss is a response of the earth-atmosphere system to the unique change of cloud cover configuration and the rapid warming of the land surface. This energy budget change, in turn, slows down the warming rate of the climate system. However, current major atmospheric reanalysis products are not able to reflect these trends in cloud cover and TOA outgoing radiation.

    利用站点观测资料和卫星辐射产品,该研究发现青藏高原可能是一个大气能量损耗的窗口,起到类似减缓升温的作用。这种作用实际是高原陆-气系统升温和不同高度云量变化共同作用的结果,该研究同时发现几套主流再分析资料并不能重现高原上云量和能量的变化。

  9. Ma, Y., Z. Hu, L. Tian, F. Zhang, A. Duan, K. Yang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Yang, 2014: 青藏高原气候系统变化及其对东亚区域的影响与机制研究进展, Advances in Earth Science, 29(2), 207-215, doi:10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.02.0207.
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    Presented the mid-term research summary on "Tibetan Plateau climate system change and mechanism of its impact on East Asia", a project of MOST "Global Change" programme

    全球变化重大项目-青藏高原气候系统变化及其对东亚区域的影响与机制研究的中期总结

  10. Xu, C., Y.M. Ma, A. Panday, Z.Y. Cong, K. Yang, Z.K. Zhu, J.M. Wang, P.M. Amatya, and L. Zhao, 2014: Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3133–3149, doi:10.5194/acp-14-3133-2014.
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    We investigated the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at two AERONET sites on the southern side of the Himalaya and one on the northern side, and found two high-elevation sites can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere (AOD=0.05), while a low-elevation suburban site in southern slope has much higher aerosol load (0.51). Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large-scale atmospheric circulation, and diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography.

    对比了喜马拉雅山脉南北坡的气溶胶光学性质,发现南北坡高海拔的AOD很低,代表了大气的背景值,但南坡低海拔站具有高得多的AOD,受人类活动的影响。这些站的AOD的季节变化受大尺度环流的影响,但它们的日变化受中尺度气流和局地地形的影响。

  11. Yang, K., H. Wu, J. Qin, C. Lin, W. Tang, and Y. Chen, 2014: Recent climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on energy and water cycle: A review, Global Planet. Change, 112, 79-91, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.12.001.
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    This study reviewed recent research progress in the climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and explored the processes and mechanisms how the water and energy cycle responded to the climate changes. Based on the findings, a conceptual model was proposed to form a consistent and integrated interpretation of these climate changes and their impacts. Several relevant urgent issues to be clarified in future studies were recommended.

    青藏高原的气候在过去的几十年中发生着显著的变化。本文回顾了近年来关于青藏高原温度、水汽、风速、地表太阳辐射和蒸发等变化研究的新进展,并且综述了这些气象要素变化引起的能量和水循环的响应,并提出了一个概念模型,试图从气候系统的角度全面理解这些变化的机理,并提出了几个亟待研究的科学问题。

  12. Yang, K., H. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Qin, and L. Wang, 2014: Toward a satellite-based observation of atmospheric heat source over land, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119(6), 3124-3133, doi:10.1002/2013JD021091.
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    Conventional quantification for atmospheric heat source needs high-quality gridded meteorological data or energy flux data, which are usually not available in most regions. In this study, we present a new theory that uses satellite-observed radiation and gravity as well as river runoff to caluclate the heat source. The new method does not use weather station data and its accuracy is not affected by complex terrain.

    由于地形复杂和数据稀少,青藏高原热源计算误差大,本文提出了基于卫星辐射和重力观测以及河流径流资料的热源计算新方法。新方法不受地形影响,也不依赖于气象观测,具有高精度。

  13. Zhou, X., H. Matthes, A. Rinke, K. Klehmet, M. Heim, W. Dorn, D. Klaus, K. Dethloff, and B. Rockel, 2014: Evaluation of Arctic Land Snow Cover Characteristics, Surface Albedo, and Temperature during the Transition Seasons from Regional Climate Model Simulations and Satellite Data, Advance in Meterology, 2014, 604157, doi:10.1155/2014/604157.
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    This paper evaluates the simulated Arctic land snow cover duration, snow water equivalent, snow cover fraction, surface albedo and land surface temperature in the regional climate model HIRHAM5 during 2008-2010, compared with various satellite and reanalysis data and one further regional climate model (COSMO-CLM). HIRHAM5 shows a general agreement in the spatial patterns and annual course of these variables, although distinct biases for specific regions and months are obvious. The most prominent biases occur for east Siberian deciduous forest albedo, which is overestimated in the simulation for snow covered conditions in spring. This may be caused by the simplified albedo parameterization (e.g. non-consideration of different forest types and neglecting the effect of fallen leaves and branches on snow for deciduous tree forest). The land surface temperature biases mirror the albedo biases in their spatial and temporal structures. The snow cover fraction and albedo biases can explain the simulated land surface temperature bias of ca. -3 °C over the Siberian forest area in spring.

    本文评估了区域气候模式HIRHAM5模拟的2008年到2010年北极地区积雪覆盖面积,降雪量,地表反照率和地表气温等物理参量,并与卫星观测和再分析资料进行了对比。结果表明,尽管有些特殊地点和个别月份HIRHAM5的模拟的结果与这些参考数据有偏差,但其模拟结果总体上能够很好的再现以上参量的时间和空间特征。在积雪覆盖情况下,HIRHAM5模拟结果明显高估了西伯利亚森林覆盖地区的反照率。导致这一结果的可能原因是HIRHAM5相关参数化方案比较简单(比如没有考虑森林种类,忽略掉落树枝和树叶对地面积雪污染并进一步影响反照率)。HIRHAM5在此地区模拟的春季地表气温与ERA_Interim的偏差(-3°C)可以很好的用HIRHAM5模拟的积雪覆盖和反照率的偏差来解释。

  14. Chen, X., Z. Su, Y. Ma, K. Yang, J. Wen, and Y. Zhang, 2013: An Improvement of Roughness Height Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) over the Tibetan Plateau, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52(3), 607-622, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-056.1.
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    Based on long time series of observations at four sites (bare soil, sparse canopy, dense canopy and snow surface) on the Tibetan Plateau, we improved the SEBS estimate of sensible heat fluxes by introducing a parameterization for the thermal roughness length.

    基于青藏高原不同下垫面的长期通量观测,通过引进新的热力粗糙度参数化方案,改进了SEBS系统对感热通量的估计

  15. Kattel, D., T. Yao, K. Yang, L. Tian, Y. Gao, and D. Joswiak, 2013: Temperature Lapse Rate along Complex Mountain Terrain on the Southern Slope of the Central Himalayas, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 113(3-4), 671-682, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0816-6.
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    This study presents the first result of the temperature lapse rate along the southern slope of the central Himalayas. Annual cycle of temperature lapse rate exhibits a bi-mode pattern: two maxima in the pre-monsoon season and post-monsoon seasons and two minima in winter and summer. This pattern is controlled by different factors (dry convection, latent heating, radiative cooling, and cloud damping to solar radiation), depending on the seasons.

    中喜马拉雅南侧地表气温随海拔的衰减率不同于其他中纬度地区,其季节变化包括了季风前和季风后的两个极大值和季风期间和冬季的两个极小值。这些变化是由于不同季节的不同控制因子引起的(干对流、潜热释放、辐射冷却、云对太阳辐射的削弱等)

  16. Lin, C., K. Yang, J. Qin, and R. Fu, 2013: Observed coherent trends of surface and upper-air wind speed over China since 1960, J. Clim., 26(9), 2891-2903, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00093.1.
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    During past 50 years, surface wind speed underwent a three-phase change over China. This change exhibits elevation-dependence: more significant at high elevations, and correspond well to the upper-air wind speed change and change in latitudinal geopotential height gradient, which is highly correlated with the change in latitudinal surface temperature gradient. With these evidences we propose that the spatial inhomogeneity of the global warming may significantly change surface wind.

    过去50年,中国近地面风速呈现了三个阶段的变化:1960年代末跳跃式增强之后持续减弱,这种减弱趋势又在最近十年扭转。近地面风速的变化在高海拔的站点显得更加剧烈。另外,近地面风速的变化很好地对应了高空的风速变化,以及500百帕位势高度梯度的变化和地面温度梯度的变化。基于此,我们认为地面增温的空间不均匀性会通过大气热适应影响高空环流,进而通过垂直动量下传影响近地面的风速。

  17. Li, X., L. Wang, D. Chen, K. Yang, B. Xue, and L. Sun, 2013: Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in the mainland China during 1962–2011, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(14), 7505–7515, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50553.
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    The surface temperature lapse rate is crucial for modeling the glacier/snow melt. This paper investigates the lapse rate over China and finds that it increases along SE-China to NW-China and the lapse rate has a distinct seasonality. Over the past 50 years, the trend in the lapse rate has a spatial variability, positive in North China and negative in SW-China.

    地表气温衰减率对高寒区冰雪消融过程非常重要。本文分析了中国区域的地表温度衰减率,发现该衰减弱从东南往西北是逐步增加的,且有明显的季节变化。过去50年该衰减率的变化也有明显的空间差异,在北方增加,而在西南减小。

  18. Wu, G., A. Duan, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, and K. Yang, 2013: 青藏高原极端天气气候变化及其环境效应, Chinese Journal of Naure, 35(3), 167-171, doi:10.3969/j.issn.0253-9608.2013.03.002.
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    After summarizing climate change in the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on global climate, we proposed research foci of the NSFC programme "Extreme weather and climate changes and its environmental effects over the Tibetan Plateau"

    通过分析高原气候变化以及高原的气候影响,提出了“青藏高原极端天气气候变化及其环境效应”重大研究计划的研究重点

  19. He, Y., K. Yang, T. Yao, and J. He, 2012: 基于 WRF 模式对青藏高原一次强降水的模拟, Plateau Meteorology, 31(5), 1183-1191.
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    Presented a preliminary exploration of parameterization options for the simulation of a heavy rain event in the Tibetan Plateau

    初步探索了青藏高原暴雨事件模拟的参数化组合

  20. Qin, J., K. Yang, T. Koike, H. Lu, Y. Ma, and X. Xu, 2012: Evaluation of AIRS Precipitable Water Vapor against Ground-based GPS Measurements over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surroundings, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90C, 87-98, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2012-C06.
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    In this study, GPS signals are used to retrieve the precipitable water vapor (PWV) at sites deployed in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. Then, they are applied to validate the AIRS PWV product. The results indicate that the AIRS PWV is underestimated and the analysis shows that the possible reason for this is that the cloud clearing algorithm does not perform well in this region.

    本研究利用青藏高原及其周边分布的GPS站点反演大气可见水量,而后利用其验证AIRS反演的大气可见水量产品,结果显示AIRS产品低估了大气可降水量,分析表明低估的原因可能是AIRS去云处理算法在该区域表现欠佳。

  21. Zhang, R., T. Koike, X. Xu, Y. Ma, and K. Yang, 2012: A China-Japan Cooperative JICA Atmospheric Observing Network over the Tibetan Plateau (JICA/Tibet Project) : An Overviews, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90C, 1-16, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2012-C01.
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    JICA (Japan International Co-operation Agency) Tibet meteorological project was implemented during 2005-2009 to enhance the capability of monitoring the Plateau atmosphere. Based on the project data, the land surface models was improved, GPS data was assimilated for disaster prediction, and several processes were presented to reveal how the Plateau impacts vortex, water vapor transport, and summer rainfall.

    2005-2009年实施的中日合作JICA/Tibet项目增强了青藏高原及其周边地区的气象观测。基于新的观测数据,改进了陆面过程模型,在数值模式中同化GPS水汽数据改进了灾害性天气预报,揭示了高原如何影响到涡的形成、水汽传输、以及中国夏季降水的一些关键过程。

  22. Cheng, C.K.C., K.M. Lam, Y.T.A. Leung, K. Yang, H.W. Li Danny, and C.P. Cheung Sherman, 2011: Wind-induced natural ventilation of re-entrant bays in a high-rise building, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 99(2-3), 79–90, doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2010.11.002.
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    Based on CFD technique, this paper reports the effect of wind on natural ventilation and pollutant transport of re-entrant bays of high buildings, which are important for dangerous gases and disease dispersion.

    基于不同高度、不同结构建筑物的绕流计算,本文研究了风场对高层建筑自然通风和污染物扩散的影响。

  23. Chen, X., Y. Ma, H. Kelder, Z. Su, and K. Yang, 2011: On the behaviour of the tropopause folding events over the Tibetan Plateau, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5113-5122, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5113-2011.
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    A set of high resolution radiosonde data over the Tibetan Plateau is used to analyse the themal tropopause characters. The radiosonde temperature profiles in winter time over the TP exhibit a multiple tropopause (MT) frequently. MT events during this time are associated with tropopause folds near the subtropical westerly jet. And the MT consistently varied with the movement of the jet.

    文章使用一套青藏高原上高分辨率的无线电探空资料来分析对流层顶的热力学特征。探空温度廓线显示冬季高原上经常发生多对流层事件,该事件主要与副热带西风急流附近的对流层顶折叠有关,并且多对流层顶有与急流一致的变化。

  24. Guo, X., K. Yang, and Y. Chen, 2011: Weakening sensible heat source over the Tibetan Plateau revisited: effects of the land-atmosphere thermal coupling, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 104(1-2), 1-12, doi:10.1007/s00704-010-0328-1.
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    This study addresses possible changes in the land-atmosphere thermal coupling strength, which is indicated by the bulk transfer coefficient (CH) parameterized by combining Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and routine measurements during 1981-2006, and their effects on the sensible heat flux (H) trends over the Tibetan Plateau.

    总体输送系数(CH)能指示陆气热力耦合强度,本文使用Monin-Obukhov相似理论和气象业务观测数据参数化CH来研究青藏高原1981-2006年陆气热力耦合强度的变化以及该变化对高原感热趋势的影响。

  25. Lu, N., J. Qin, K. Yang, Y. Gao, X. Xu, and T. Koike, 2011: On the use of GPS measurements for MODIS precipitable water vapor evaluation over southern Tibet, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D23117, doi:10.1029/2011JD016160.
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    In this study, the MODIS precipitable water vapor (PWV) product is validated against the GPS PWV retrievals distributed over the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. The results indicate that the MODIS product performs well in the region above 3000 m above sea level; however, it has the positive bias in the area below this elevation. This bias can be corrected by a simple line relationship.

    本研究利用青藏高原及其周边地区分布的GPS站点大气可降水量验证MODIS大气可降水量产品,结果显示小于三千米区域,MODIS产品表现良好,而大于三千米区域,其偏大,采用简单的线性关系,其可获得较好订正。

  26. Yang, K., X. Guo, J. He, J. Qin, and T. Koike, 2011: On the Climatology and Trend of the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau: An Experiments-Supported Revisit, J. Clim., 24(5), 1525-1541, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3848.1.
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    This study provides a state-of-the-art estimate of the atmospheric heating components and their total over the Tibetan Plateau, with the aid of high-accuracy experimental data, an updated land surface model, and carefully selected satellite data. By comparing with the previous estimates, the new result seems more reliable, especially in three aspects: different seasonality, different regional pattern, and different trend.

    借助于精确的实验数据、改进的陆面模型和特别选取的卫星数据,本文提供了一种对青藏高原大气加热各分量和总和先进的估计。与先前的估计相对比,新结果更加可信,这主要表现在三个方面:不同的季节变化、不同的区域模态、不同的趋势。

  27. Yang, K., X. Guo, and B. Wu, 2011: Recent trends in surface sensible heat flux on the Tibetan Plateau, Sci. China Ser. D., 54(1), 19-28, doi:10.1007/s11430-010-4036-6.
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    Based on a newly-developed scheme, this work estimated the trend of sensible heat flux on the Tibetan Plateau over the last three decades warming period. Results from the new method show that annual mean sensible heat flux has weakened by 2% per decade. Two commonly used empirical methods showed high uncertainties in heat flux trend estimates, either 7% negative trend per decade or negligible trend.

    本文基于新发展的物理方法发现:伴随升温,青藏高原最近30年的感热通量以每10年2%的速率在减弱。常用的经验方法或者给出年均感热通量以每10年约7%的速率减弱,或者没有显著的变化趋势。凸显了根据观测资料发展新方法的重要性。

  28. Zhou, X., W. Wan, B. Zhao, X. Yue, and Z. Ren, 2010: Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis on the Thermospheric Total Mass Density Retrieved From CHAMP Observation, Chinese Journal of Space Science, 30(5), 228-234, doi:10.11728/cjss2010.03.228.
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    The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to study the thermospheric total mass density at the altitude of 400 km with the data obtained from Germany CHAMP satellite during the interval from 2003 to 2007, when the solar activity is in declining period. We obtain the solar cycle and yearly variations of the thermospheric total mass density. It is found that (1) The total mass density was obviously affected by the solar activity, the correlation coefficient between solar cycle variation component of and F107 index can reach to 94.5%. At the mid- and high-latitudes, the amplitude of solar cycle variation is larger in south hemisphere than in north one. The amplitude of the solar cycle variation is decreased as the latitudes change from lower to higher. At low-latitudes there exists a structure of double crests which is recently known as the equatorial mass density anomaly (EMA). (2) In the yearly variation of the total mass density, there is a seasonal variation that the density is larger in winter than in summer. The amplitude of the yearly variation of density increases with solar F107 index as well as the absolute latitude. Comparing the result of CHAMP data with the output of NRLMSISE00 model under the input of same condition of the observation, we find that both the solar cycle and the yearly variations of thermospheric total mass density are in good agreement. Even though, the latitude difference of the solar cycle variation of is a little bigger from NRLMSISE00 than CHAMP data and there is no EMA structure in NRLMSISE00 model. Furthermore, there is an obvious semiannual variation component while analyzing the NRLMSISE00 data without 130-day-wide sliding window. Thus it is considered that, with the restriction of CHAMP orbit, the 130-day-wide sliding window may smooth out the semiannual component, as well as the higher. It is concluded that the present results are meaningful in the study of the thermospheric climatology.

    本文对2003年(太阳活动较高年)至2007年(太阳活动低年)CHAMP卫星的热层大气密度观测数据进行了经验正交函数(EOF)分析,得到了400km高度上白天平均大气密度的太阳活动周变化与年度变化等不同的变化分量。主要结果是:(1)受太阳活动影响较大,其太阳周变化分量与F107指数的变化之间的相关系数可高达94.5%;的太阳周期变化分量随纬度增加而减小,且在中高纬地区,南半球的值明显大于北半球的值,在低纬地区则出现基本对称的双峰分布,即EMA(赤道质量密度异常)结构。(2)在的年变化中,呈现出明显的季节变化,即夏季低冬季高;同时的年变化幅度随太阳活动增加而增强,随纬度增加而增强。将本文结果与经验模式NRLMSISE00在观测条件下的输出数据对比,发现两者的太阳周变化和年变化两种分量基本一致,但本文的观测数据的太阳周成份随纬度变化略小,年变化幅度略大,且模式不能再现EMA结构。此外,对按均匀采样时NRLMSISE00的输出结果进行的EOF分析中,还含有明显的半年变化分量,这一分量并没有出现在观测数据的分析结果中。这表明由于卫星轨道覆盖的限制,本文的数据分析中采用的数据平滑可能导致不能正确给出半年或更短周期的热层密度变化。本文结果对研究和揭示热层气候学变化特征有重要的意义。

  29. Qin, J., K. Yang, S. Liang, and X. Guo, 2009: The altitudinal dependence of recent rapid warming over the Tibetan Plateau, Clim. Change, 97(1-2), 321-327, doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9733-9.
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    In this study, the warming rates at different elevations are computed using the observational temperatures at the weather stations over the Tibetan Plateau, and then they are used to validate the corresponding warming rates based upon the MODIS temperature product. After ensuring the reliability of the warming rates derived from the MODIS temperatures, they are used to derive the warming rates at different elevations over the entire Tibetan Plateau.

    本研究比较了台站计算的青藏高原地区不同海拔近10年的增温率,用其验证对应的MODIS地表温度产品计算的同高度同时间段的增温率,在确定基于MODIS计算的增温率可靠性后,利用其获取了整个青藏高原地区不同海拔区域的增温状态。

  30. Yang, K., J. Qin, X. Guo, D. Zhou, and Y. Ma, 2009: Method Development for Estimating Sensible Heat Flux over the Tibetan Plateau from CMA Data, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48(12), 2474-2486, doi:10.1175/2009JAMC2167.1.
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    This study at first evaluates three widely used bulk schemes against Tibet instrumental flux data, which shows that large uncertainties exist in surface sensible heat flux estimates, because of without diurnal variations of atmospheric stability. To improve the estimate, a new method is developed to disaggregate coarse-resolution meteorological data to hourly according to statistical relationships derived from high-resolution experimental data, and then sensible heat flux is estimated from the hourly data by a well-validated flux scheme. Evaluations against heat flux observations in summer and against net radiation observations in winter indicate that the new method performs much better than previous schemes.

    本文首先对比青藏高原实测通量数据评估了三种广泛应用的总体输送方案对地表感热通量的估计,结果显示由于没有考虑大气稳定性的日变化,这些估计中都存在较大的不确定性。为了改进对感热的估计,发展了一种新的方法:它把粗分辨率的数据通过由高分辨率数据得来的统计关系分解到小时尺度上,然后通过一个已经得到很好标定的方案来估计感热通量。对比夏季热量通量的观测和冬季净辐射的观测结果显示新方法比以前方案表现更优。

  31. Tsuang, B., M. Chou, Y. Zhang, A. Roesch, and K. Yang, 2008: Evaluations of Land-Ocean Skin Temperatures of the ISCCP Satellite Retrievals and the NCEP and ERA Reanalyses, J. Clim., 21(2), 308-330, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1502.1.
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    This study evaluates the global skin temperature (ST) datasets of the ISCCP D satellite product, the ISCCP FD satellite product, ERA-40, NCEP2, and NCEP1. First, it's found that the monthly anomalies of all the datasets are correlated to each other and to most of the ground-truth stations with correlation coefficients >0.50. Then, the clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and upward surface longwave radiation (USLR) are calculated to evaluate the qualities of the 5 datasets.

    此研究评估了5 个数据集的全球表层温度(ST),这5个数据集分别是ISCCP D、ISCCP Fd卫星产品、ERA-40、NCEP2和NCEP1再分析资料。首先,所有数据集的月距平有较好的彼此相关性,并且与大部分地面观测站资料相关系数大于0.50。然后计算了晴空向外长波辐射(OLR)和向上地表长波辐射(USLR)来评估这5个数据集各自的特点。

  32. Yang, K., M. Rasmy, S. Rauniyar, T. Koike, K. Taniguchi, K. Tamagawa, P. Koudelova, M. Kitsuregawa, T. Nemoto, M. Yasukawa, E. Ikoma, M. Bosilovich, and S. Williams, 2007: Initial CEOP-based Review of the Prediction Skill of Operational General Circulation Models and Land Surface Models, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85A, 99-116, doi:10.2151/jmsj.85A.99.
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    Using data archived in the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) project, this study presents an initial evaluation of the prediction skill of five General Circulation Models (GCMs) in term of surface water and energy at diurnal, seasonal, annual scales and three Land Surface Models (LSMs) in term of surface energy budget.

    本文首次使用CEOP项目数据评估了模型的预报技巧,这包括从日、季、年尺度通过地表水能评估五个大气环流模型的预报技巧,和从地表能量估算评估三个陆面过程模型。

  33. Yang, K., T. Koike, H. Fujii, T. Tamura, X. Xu, L. Bian, and M. Zhou, 2004: The Daytime Evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Convection over the Tibetan Plateau: Observations and Simulations, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82(6), 1777-1792, doi:10.2151/jmsj.82.1777.
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    Based on field observations, theoretical analyses, and numerical simulations, this study investigates the daytime structure and the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and convection over the Tibetan Plateau during the dry season.

    本文运用实验观测、理论分析以及数值模拟三种方式分析了青藏高原干季白天的大气边界层(ABL)和对流活动的结构和演变。




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