Publications
Publications in Hydrology

ISI-indexed journal papers
  1. Lei, Y., T. Yao, K. Yang, Y. Sheng, M. Kleinherenbrink, S. Yi, B.W. Bird, X. Zhang, Lazhu, and G. Zhang, 2017: Lake seasonality across the Tibetan Plateau and their varying relationship with regional mass changes and local hydrology, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, doi:10.1002/2016GL072062.
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    Two patterns of lake level seasonalitybetween the northwestern TP and theother regions are identified Lake level variations in the central,northern, and northeastern TP areconsistent with regional total masschanges Lake level variations in thenorthwestern TP deviate from

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  2. Sichangi, A.W., L. Wang, K. Yang, D. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and D. Kuria, 2016: Estimating continental river basin discharges using multiple remote sensing data sets, Remote Sens. Environ., 179, 36-53, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.019.
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    MODIS and satellite altimetry data are used to estimate river discharge. A global evaluation was done for 8 continental rivers showing high accuracy. Using both river stage and effective width records can improve discharge estimates. The new method outperforms previously established multi-variate method.

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  3. Zhang, G., T. Yao, S. Piao, T. Bolch, H. Xie, D. Chen, Y. Gao, C.M. O'Reilly, C.K. Shum, K. Yang, S. Yi, Y. Lei, W. Wang, Y. He, K. Shang, and X. Yang;, 2016: Extensive and drastically different alpine lake changes on Asia's high plateaus during the past four decades, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(1), 252-260, doi:10.1002/2016GL072033.
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    Contrasting patterns of lake changebetween the Mongolian Plateau (MP)and Tibetan Plateau (TP) A clear in flection point of lake changeduring 1997/1998 on both plateaus The warmer-drier climate in MP,contrasting the warmer-wetterclimate in TP, has driven drasticallydifferent patterns of lake evolutions

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  4. Qin, J., L. Zhao, Y. Chen, K. Yang, Y. Yang, Z. Chen, and H. Lu, 2015: Inter-comparison of spatial upscaling methods for evaluation of satellite-based soil moisture, J. Hydrol., 523, 170-178, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.01.061.
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    Four mainstream upscaling approaches are inter-compared through the evaluation of satellite-based soil moistures. Different upscaling approaches exhibit distinct performance. The sources for the performance differences are analyzed. Choosing an appropriate upscaling algorithm reduces uncertainties in evaluating satellite-based soil moisture.

    基于利用两个观测网的土壤水分数据对卫星反演土壤水分的评估,交叉比较了四个主流升尺度方法。结果表明不同升尺度方法的性能存在明显差异,同时,我们也分析了差异的来源。最后该研究指出,卫星土壤水分的升尺度可能会因升尺度的方案带来误差,选择一个合适的升尺度方案可以减小不确定性。

  5. Ding, B., K. Yang, J. Qin, L. Wang, Y. Chen, and X. He, 2014: The dependence of precipitation types on surface elevation and meteorological conditions and its parameterization, J. Hydrol., 513, 154-163, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.03.038.
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    This study reveals that precipitation types highly depend on surface wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity, and surface elevation. Using these relationships, a new parameterization scheme is developed to discriminate rain, sleet, and snow. Evaluations for China territory show that the new scheme outperforms 11 schemes that are used in hydrological and land surface models.

    研究发现,地表降水类型与地表湿球温度、相对湿度和海拔密切相关。基于此,本文发展了一个新的参数化方案来分辨降雨、降雪和雨夹雪。中国区域的评估结果显示,这种方案明显优于已应用于水文陆面模型中的11种其他方案。

  6. Lei, Y., K. Yang, B. Wang, Y. Sheng, B.W. Bird, G. Zhang, and L. Tian, 2014: Response of inland lake dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau to climate change, Clim. Change, 125(2), 281-290, doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1175-3.
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    We demonstrate that a coherent lake growth on the TP interior (TPI) and a lake shrinkage in southern TP have occurred since the late 1990s. The major cause is that precipitation increased over TPI and decreased over southern TP, although the expansion of some lakes was significantly impacted by accelerated glacier melting. The lake change is a response to significant changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation (e.g. the intensified Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) and the poleward shift of the Eastern Asian westerlies jet stream).

    卫星数据显示自1990年代末以来高原内部湖泊显著扩张而南部边缘湖泊收缩。尽管部分湖泊受冰川影响,但湖泊变化的空间格局与降水变化的空间格局更一致。这些变化是对北半球大尺度环流的变化(例如季风增强,西风急流北移)的响应。

  7. Pan, X., X. Li, K. Yang, J. He, Y. Zhang, and X. Han, 2014: Comparison of downscaled precipitation data over a mountainous watershed-A case study in the Heihe River Basin, J. Hydrometeorol., doi:10.1175/JHM-D-13-0202.1.
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    Four regional precipitation products are evaluated for the Heihe River basin with complex terrain. The results indicate current precipitation products generally show similar spatial–temporal patterns in this basin but have varying performances between different subbasins.

    我们在黑河流域比较了4套降水观测资料,结果显示当前主要的降水产品总体上具有相似的时空变化,但是在不同子流域(上游山区,中游绿洲,下游荒漠)不同产品的误差差别较大。

  8. Chen, Y., K. Yang, J. Qin, L. Zhao, W. Tang, and M. Han, 2013: Evaluation of AMSR-E retrievals and GLDAS simulations against observations of a soil moisture network on the central Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(10), 4466-4475, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50301.
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    In this study, four AMSR-E soil moisture products and four GLDAS land surface modeling products are evaluated against observations from the Naqu SMTMS network. None of the AMSR-E products provides reliable estimates in the unfrozen season, indicating that the retrieval algorithms have much space to be improved for the cold semi-arid regions. The four GLDAS models tend to systematically underestimate the surface soil moisture, which can be attributed to the absence of soil organic carbon induced stratification of soil properties in the land surface models.

    用Naqu土壤温湿度观察网数据验证了4种AMSR-E土壤水分产品和4种GLDAS的模拟土壤水分产品。发现AMSR-E产品均不能达到设计要求,其算法还需进一步改进。发现4个陆面过程模型系统性低估了表层土壤含水量,这与模型不能描述有机质引起的土壤性质分层现象有关。

  9. Lei, Y., T. Yao, B. Bird, K. Yang, J. Zhai, and Y. Sheng, 2013: Coherent lake growth on the central Tibetan Plateau since the 1970s: Characterization and attribution, J. Hydrol., 483, 61-67, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.003.
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    Lakes on the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) expanded significantly in recent decades, and this study tried to clarify its cause. We show that increased precipitation and runoff, and decreased lake evaporation were the main causes for the coherent lake growth and could contribute by about 70% of total increase in lake storage.

    青藏高原中部的湖泊近十几年来出现明显扩张,尽管早期研究认为冰川加速消融是湖泊扩张的要因,我们发现70%的湖泊水量增加可以由降水引起的径流增加和气候变化引起的湖泊蒸发减少来解释。

  10. Xue, B., L. Wang, K. Yang, L. Tian, J. Qin, Y. Chen, L. Zhao, Y. Ma, T. Koike, Z. Hu, and X. Li, 2013: Modeling the land surface water and energy cycles of a mesoscale watershed in the central Tibetan Plateau during summer with a distributed hydrological model, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(16), 8857-8868, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50696.
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    The surface energy and water budgets in Naqu River basin of the central Tibetan Plateau are simulated with a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The simulated results are effectively validated against observations of river discharge, energy flux, multi-sites soil moisture, and satellite land surface temperature, indicating that the model has the capacity to simulate the complex hydrological processes on the Plateau.

    应用分布式水文模型WEB-DHM模拟了青藏高原中部那曲流域的能量和水分平衡。模拟结果得到了河流径流、单点地表通量、多点土壤水分以及卫星地表温度等观测的验证,表明该模型能够模拟高原复杂水文过程。

  11. Xue, B., L. Wang, X. Li, K. Yang, D. Chen, and L. Sun, 2013: Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimates for two river basins on the Tibetan Plateau by a water balance method, J. Hydrol., 492, 290-297, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.04.005.
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    This study estimates E Evapotranspiration (E) for the upper Yellow River and Yangtze River basins on the Tibetan Plateau. Results indicate that annual terrestrial water storage change in the two basins is negligible, and basin-scale E can be reliably estimated by the difference between precipitation and runoff. The E estimated by the water balance method is then used to evaluate four E products and their errors are explored.

    本研究基于水量平衡法估计了黄河和长江源区的蒸散发量,结果表明在年尺度上水储量可以忽略,因此蒸散发大致等于降水与径流之差。在此基础上评估了4套遥感和模型估计的蒸散发,并解释了它们存在误差的原因。

  12. Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y. Chen, W. Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C. Lin, M. Han, and H. Vereecken., 2013: Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture observations within a Tibetan mesoscale area and its implication to regional soil moisture measurements, J. Hydrol., 482, 92-104, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.033.
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    A mesoscale soil moisture/temperature monitoring network was established on the Tibetan Plateau. Based on in-situ soil moisture measurements, the number of required sites and the most representative site were obtained through random sampling analysis and time stability study, respectively. Their sensitivity to different temporal scales and soil wetness conditions were also discussed. At last, the combination of a few optimally selected sites was found able to give more robust estimate of areal mean soil moisture than a single site does.

    基于新建立的青藏高原中尺度土壤温湿观测网实测数据进行了时空特征分析。随机采样方法和时间稳定性分析分别被用来确定最小站点数以及最具代表性站点。分析中同时考虑了不同时间尺度以及不同土壤水分状况的影响。最后,研究发现经过优化选择的几个站点组合相比于单个站点能给出更稳定的区域平均土壤水分估计。

  13. Wang, F., L. Wang, T. Koike, H. Zhou, K. Yang, A. Wang, and W. Li, 2011: Evaluation and application of a fine-resolution global dataset in a semiarid mesoscale river basin with a distributed biosphere hydrological model, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D21108, doi:10.1029/2011JD015990.
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    This study evaluated GLDAS forcing data and applied GLDAS forcing data to drive Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM) in a semiarid meso-scale basin in NE China. The GLDAS is of high quality for monthly precipitation, air temperature, longwave radiation, while it overestimates monthly shortwave radiation. WEB-DHM can reproduce daily discharge, 8-day LST and monthly surface soil moisture (point scale) fairly well.

    评估了GLDAS驱动数据在一个中国东北中尺度流域的精度,表明在月尺度上,GLDAS的降水、气温、和向下长波辐射具有较高温度,但短波辐射明显过高。用校正后的GLDAS数据驱动基于能量平衡的分布式水文模型(WEB-DHM),可以再现观测的日径流、地表温度、以及土壤水分。

  14. Yang, K., B. Ye, D. Zhou, B. Wu, T. Foken, J. Qin, and Z. Zhou, 2011: Response of hydrological cycle to recent climate changes in the Tibetan Plateau, Clim. Change, 109(3-4), 517-534, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0099-4.
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    This study investigated how climate changes influenced the hydrological cycle on the TP during 1984~2006. To facilitate the analysis, a land surface model was used to simulate surface water budget at all CMA (China Meteorological Administration) stations on the TP. The simulated results were first validated against observed ground temperature and observation-derived heat flux on the western TP and observed discharge trends on the eastern TP. The response of evaporation and runoff to the climate changes was then analyzed.

    本文研究了1986~2006年青藏高原上的气候对水文循环的影响。为了简化分析,用陆面模型来模拟青藏高原上所有CMA站的表面水量平衡。模拟结果首先和青藏高原西部观测的地面温度、观测驱动的能量通量和青藏高原东部观测的径流趋势进行了验证,然后分析了蒸发和径流对气候变化的响应。

  15. Yang, W., X. Guo, T. Yao, K. Yang, L. Zhao, S. Li, and M. Zhu, 2011: Summertime surface energy budget and ablation modeling in the ablation zone of a maritime Tibetan glacier, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D14116, doi:10.1029/2010JD015183.
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    The surface energy budget and ablation were measured in the ablation zone of Parlung No.4 Glacier on the southeast Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer 2009. The present study examines the summertime surface energy fluxes to identify major atmospheric variables governing the surface melt and their phenomenological links to the progression of the South Asian monsoon.

    2009年夏季,对藏东南的帕隆藏布4号冰川的消融区进行了表面能量平衡和融化的测量。这个研究通过检测夏季表面能量通量以辨别控制表面融化和南亚夏季风进程现象的联系的主要大气变量。

  16. Saavedra, O., T. Koike, K. Yang, and D. Yang, 2010: Optimal Dam Operation during Flood Season Using a Distributed Hydrological Model and a Heuristic Algorithm, J. Hydrol. Eng., 15(7), 580-586, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000212.
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    A physically based distributed hydrological model is coupled with an optimization algorithm for joint dam operation to reduce the flood peaks downstream. The observed weather radar products from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System were input to the hydrological model to simulate the discharge within the river network. The proposed integrated operation can effectively reduce a flood peak suggesting the feasibility of real-time operation in future developments.

    与优化运算耦合的物理基础的分布式水文模型,用来做联合坝运转以减小下游洪峰。从自动气象数据采集系统获得的观测气象雷达产品,作为水文模型的输入以模拟河网流量。推荐的集成操作可以有效减小洪峰,提供了未来发展实时操作的可行性。

  17. Saavedra, O., T. Koike, K. Yang, T. Graf, X. Li, L. Wang, and X. Han, 2010: Decision support for dam release during floods using a distributed biosphere hydrological model driven by quantitative precipitation forecasts, Water Resour. Res., 46, W10544, doi:10.1029/2010WR009502.
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    This study proposes a decision support system for real-time dam operation during heavy rainfall. It uses an operational mesoscale quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) to force a hydrological model and considers the forecast error from the previous time step, which is introduced as a perturbation range applied to the most recent QPF. A prototype was applied to the Tone reservoir system and the results indicate that the developed decision support system is feasible for real-life dam operation.

    此项研究为强降雨天气下的实时大坝运转提供了一个决策支持系统。用可实现的中尺度定量降雨预报(QPF)来驱动水文模型,并考虑前一时间段的预报偏差,这个作为扰动范围应用于大多数现行QPF。将模型用于托恩水库系统,结果显示发展的决策支持系统对于实时大坝运转具有可操作性。

  18. Wang, L., T. Koike, K. Yang, R. Jin, and H. Li, 2010: Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 557-571, doi:10.5194/hess-14-557-2010.
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    A frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

    将改良后的冻土参数化方案并入分布式水文模型WEB-DHM中。在一个寒冷的小区域Binngou流域,用WATER的站点观测数据对拥有冻土模块的WEB-DHM进行评估。结果显示,拥有冻土模块的WEB-DHM可以更好地模拟年长度的寒区流域的土壤水分曲线和流域出口的流量。

  19. Wang, L., T. Koike, D. Yang, and K. Yang, 2009: Improving the hydrology of the Simple Biosphere Model 2 and its evaluation within the framework of a distributed hydrological model, Hydrol. Sci. J., 54(6), 989-1006, doi:10.1623/hysj.54.6.989.
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    First, the SiB2 three-layer soil model is replaced with a multi-layer soil column coupled to a lumped unconfined aquifer model. Next, lateral water flows are described in the updated soil model. Finally, the soil hydraulic function in SiB2 is replaced with van Genuchten parameterization, and exponential vertical soil heterogeneity is described. The improved version HydroSiB2 can be coupled with mesoscale atmospheric models for improved water and energy flux predictions.

    首先,将SiB2中的三层土壤模型替换为多层土壤柱体,耦合到块状无限含水层模型中。其次,在校正的土壤模型中描述侧边界水流。最后,SiB2中的土壤水力方程替换为Genuchten参数化方案,垂向土壤多样性被描述为指数型的。改进版本的HydroSiB2模型可以耦合到中尺度大气模型中,以更好地预测水和能量的通量。

  20. Wang, L., T. Koike, K. Yang, T. Jackson, R. Bindlish, and D. Yang, 2009: Development of a distributed biosphere hydrological model and its evaluation with the Southern Great Plains Experiments (SGP97 and SGP99), J. Geophys. Res. atmos., 114, D08107, doi:10.1029/2008JD010800.
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    A distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM) has been developed by fully coupling a biosphere scheme (SiB2) with a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM). And the WEB-DHM was calibrated and validated for the Little Washita Basin using field observations from SGP97 and SGP99.

    分布式生态水文模型(WEB-DHM)通过将一个生态模块(SiB2)与一个地形学为基础的水文模型(GBHM)完全耦合得到发展,并且利用小沃希托河流域的97年和99年的野外观测进行了校正和验证。

  21. Wang, L., T. Koike, K. Yang, and P. Yeh, 2009: Assessment of a distributed biosphere hydrological model against streamflow and MODIS land surface temperature in the upper Tone River Basin, J. Hydrol., 377(1-2), 21-34, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.08.005.
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    A distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM) which couples a biosphere scheme (SiB2) with a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM), is applied to the upper Tone River Basin where flux observations are not available. After being calibrated with discharge data, WEB-DHM is assessed against observed streamflows at four major gauges and MODIS LST.

    与生物圈结构(SiB2)和地形学为基础的水文模型(GBHM)耦合的分布式生态水文模型(WEB-DHM),被应用于没有通量观测的托恩河流域上游。在与流量数据校正后,WEB-DHM用四个主要流量站的流量观测数据和MODIS地表温度数据进行了评估。

  22. Yang, K., Y. Hong, X. Zhou, and Y. Li, 2000: Study on anisotropic buoyant turbulence model, J. Appl. Math. Mech., 21(1), 43-48, doi:10.1007/BF02458538.
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    A non-linear anisotropy buoyant turbulence model was developed by applying linearity of equilibrium hypothesis to Reynolds stress transports . The model avoids numerical singularity and its reliability is verified by the comparisons between predictions and experimental data.

    应用Reynolds应力输送的平衡假设,发展了一个非线性各向异性浮力湍流模型。该模型可避免数值奇异性,模拟结果得到实验数据验证。




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