Publications in Meteorology

Invited newsletter and book chapter
  1. Yang, K., 2017: Observed Regional Climate Change in Tibet over the Last Decades, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science, 1-41, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.587.

    Presented a comprehensive review on major climate changes occurring since the 1980s, summarized their impacts on water and energy cycle, and recommended several research foci in future studies


  2. Yang, K., X. Li, and T. Koike, 2010: Report on the CAS-CEOP Lhasa workshop, GEWEX News, 20(3), 5.

    This report describes the event of "The 2nd CAS-CEOP International Workshop on Energy and Water Cycle over the Tibetan Plateau and High-elevations", which was held at Lhasa, 19-21, August, 2010. More than 70 foreign and 70 domestic participants joined the meeting. The meeting was organized by ITPCAS and co-sponsored by CAS, NSFC, CEOP-WEBS and CEOP AEGIS.


Journal papers
  1. Ouyang, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y. Wang, and H. Lu, 2017: 喜马拉雅山区降水研究进展与展望, Plateau Meteorology, 36(5), NULL, doi:10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2016.00111.

    Presented current understanding to the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation in Himalayan Mountains, and recommended to enhance observing networks in high elevations


  2. Wang, Y., K. Yang, Z. Pan, J. Qin, D. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Chen, Lazhu, W. Tang, M. Han, N. Lu, and H. Wu, 2017: Evaluation of Precipitable Water Vapor from Four Satellite Products and Four Reanalysis Datasets against GPS Measurements on the Southern Tibetan Plateau, J. Climate, 30(15), 5699-5713, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0630.1.

    In this study, PWV datafrom MODIS infrared and near-infrared measurements, AIRS Level-2 and Level-3, MERRA, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and NCEP final reanalysis (NCEP-Final) are evaluated against ground-based GPS measurements at nine stations over the STP, which covers the summer monsoon season from 2007 to 2013.

    基于ITP在高原南部建立的9个地基GPS观测站在2007-2013季风期间的观测,分别对MODIS红外及近红外、AIRS Level-2 和 Level-3、MERRA、ERA-interim、JRA-55和NCEP-final可降水量产品精度进行了评估。

  3. Zhou, X., K. Yang, and Y. Wang, 2017: Implementation of a Turbulent Orographic Form Drag Scheme in WRF and Its Application to the Tibetan Plateau, Climate Dynamics, 48, 106-115, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3677-y.



  4. Jiang, X., Y. Li, S. Yang, K. Yang, and J. Chen, 2016: Interannual variation of summer atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau and the role of convection around the western Maritime Continent, J. Climate, 29(1), 121-138, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0181.1.

    Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the total heat (TH) source over the TP in June are different from those in July and August. Large TH is accompanied by a cyclone centered over the South China Sea in June, which is replaced by an anticyclone in July and August.


  5. Wang, L., L. Sun, M. Shrestha, X. Li, W. Liu, J. Zhou, K. Yang, H. Lu, and D. Chen, 2016: Improving Snow Process Modeling with Satellite-Based Estimation of Near-Surface-Air-Temperature Lapse Rate, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(20), 12,005-12,030, doi:10.1002/2016JD025506.

    Distributed snow modeling at a large, cold river basin (upper Yellow River Basin) Lapse rate has a great impact on the snow and streamflow simulations Satellite-based estimates of lapse rate lead to improved snow process modeling


  6. Lu, N., J. Qin, Y. Gao, K. Yang, K.E. Trenberth, M. Gehne, and Y. Zhu, 2015: Trends and variability in atmospheric precipitable water over the Tibetan Plateau for 2000–2010, Int. J. Climatol., 35(7), 1394-1404, doi:10.1002/joc.4064.

    Positive change in precipitable water in NE-Tibetan Plateau and negative change in SW-Tibetan Plateau during 2000-2010 are found, which implies wetting trend in NE-Plateau while drying trend in SW-Plateau.


  7. Lu, N., K.E. Trenberth, J. Qin, K. Yang, and L. Yao, 2015: Detecting Long-Term Trends in Precipitable Water over the Tibetan Plateau by Synthesis of Station and MODIS Observations, J. Climate, 28(4), 1707-1722, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00303.1.

    The monthly-mean precipitable water (PW) from MODIS and 63 stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are used to constructed a Bayesian estimation model, and the model is used to estimate continuous monthly-mean PW for 1970–2011. The constructed data shows a significant increasing trend in annual PW for the TP during the 42 years and the most significant increase occurred for 1986–99.


  8. Wu, H., K. Yang, X. Niu, and Y. Chen, 2015: The role of cloud height and warming in the decadal weakening of atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau, Sci. China Ser. D., 58(3), 395–403, doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4973-6.

    Using surface observations and satellite radiation data, the study finds that the Tibetan Plateau may be another important window that gets rid of excessive energy from the climate system. This enhanced energy loss is a response of the earth-atmosphere system to the unique change of cloud cover configuration and the rapid warming of the land surface. This energy budget change, in turn, slows down the warming rate of the climate system. However, current major atmospheric reanalysis products are not able to reflect these trends in cloud cover and TOA outgoing radiation.


  9. Ma, Y., Z. Hu, L. Tian, F. Zhang, A. Duan, K. Yang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Yang, 2014: 青藏高原气候系统变化及其对东亚区域的影响与机制研究进展, Advances in Earth Science, 29(2), 207-215, doi:10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.02.0207.

    Presented the mid-term research summary on "Tibetan Plateau climate system change and mechanism of its impact on East Asia", a project of MOST "Global Change" programme


  10. Xu, C., Y.M. Ma, A. Panday, Z.Y. Cong, K. Yang, Z.K. Zhu, J.M. Wang, P.M. Amatya, and L. Zhao, 2014: Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3133–3149, doi:10.5194/acp-14-3133-2014.

    We investigated the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at two AERONET sites on the southern side of the Himalaya and one on the northern side, and found two high-elevation sites can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere (AOD=0.05), while a low-elevation suburban site in southern slope has much higher aerosol load (0.51). Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large-scale atmospheric circulation, and diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography.


  11. Yang, K., H. Wu, J. Qin, C. Lin, W. Tang, and Y. Chen, 2014: Recent climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on energy and water cycle: A review, Global Planet. Change, 112, 79-91, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.12.001.

    This study reviewed recent research progress in the climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and explored the processes and mechanisms how the water and energy cycle responded to the climate changes. Based on the findings, a conceptual model was proposed to form a consistent and integrated interpretation of these climate changes and their impacts. Several relevant urgent issues to be clarified in future studies were recommended.


  12. Yang, K., H. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Qin, and L. Wang, 2014: Toward a satellite-based observation of atmospheric heat source over land, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119(6), 3124-3133, doi:10.1002/2013JD021091.

    Conventional quantification for atmospheric heat source needs high-quality gridded meteorological data or energy flux data, which are usually not available in most regions. In this study, we present a new theory that uses satellite-observed radiation and gravity as well as river runoff to caluclate the heat source. The new method does not use weather station data and its accuracy is not affected by complex terrain.


  13. Zhou, X., H. Matthes, A. Rinke, K. Klehmet, M. Heim, W. Dorn, D. Klaus, K. Dethloff, and B. Rockel, 2014: Evaluation of Arctic Land Snow Cover Characteristics, Surface Albedo, and Temperature during the Transition Seasons from Regional Climate Model Simulations and Satellite Data, Advance in Meterology, 2014, 604157, doi:10.1155/2014/604157.

    This paper evaluates the simulated Arctic land snow cover duration, snow water equivalent, snow cover fraction, surface albedo and land surface temperature in the regional climate model HIRHAM5 during 2008-2010, compared with various satellite and reanalysis data and one further regional climate model (COSMO-CLM). HIRHAM5 shows a general agreement in the spatial patterns and annual course of these variables, although distinct biases for specific regions and months are obvious. The most prominent biases occur for east Siberian deciduous forest albedo, which is overestimated in the simulation for snow covered conditions in spring. This may be caused by the simplified albedo parameterization (e.g. non-consideration of different forest types and neglecting the effect of fallen leaves and branches on snow for deciduous tree forest). The land surface temperature biases mirror the albedo biases in their spatial and temporal structures. The snow cover fraction and albedo biases can explain the simulated land surface temperature bias of ca. -3 °C over the Siberian forest area in spring.


  14. Chen, X., Z. Su, Y. Ma, K. Yang, J. Wen, and Y. Zhang, 2013: An Improvement of Roughness Height Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) over the Tibetan Plateau, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52(3), 607-622, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-056.1.

    Based on long time series of observations at four sites (bare soil, sparse canopy, dense canopy and snow surface) on the Tibetan Plateau, we improved the SEBS estimate of sensible heat fluxes by introducing a parameterization for the thermal roughness length.


  15. Kattel, D., T. Yao, K. Yang, L. Tian, Y. Gao, and D. Joswiak, 2013: Temperature Lapse Rate along Complex Mountain Terrain on the Southern Slope of the Central Himalayas, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 113(3-4), 671-682, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0816-6.

    This study presents the first result of the temperature lapse rate along the southern slope of the central Himalayas. Annual cycle of temperature lapse rate exhibits a bi-mode pattern: two maxima in the pre-monsoon season and post-monsoon seasons and two minima in winter and summer. This pattern is controlled by different factors (dry convection, latent heating, radiative cooling, and cloud damping to solar radiation), depending on the seasons.


  16. Lin, C., K. Yang, J. Qin, and R. Fu, 2013: Observed coherent trends of surface and upper-air wind speed over China since 1960, J. Clim., 26(9), 2891-2903, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00093.1.

    During past 50 years, surface wind speed underwent a three-phase change over China. This change exhibits elevation-dependence: more significant at high elevations, and correspond well to the upper-air wind speed change and change in latitudinal geopotential height gradient, which is highly correlated with the change in latitudinal surface temperature gradient. With these evidences we propose that the spatial inhomogeneity of the global warming may significantly change surface wind.


  17. Li, X., L. Wang, D. Chen, K. Yang, B. Xue, and L. Sun, 2013: Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in the mainland China during 1962–2011, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(14), 7505–7515, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50553.

    The surface temperature lapse rate is crucial for modeling the glacier/snow melt. This paper investigates the lapse rate over China and finds that it increases along SE-China to NW-China and the lapse rate has a distinct seasonality. Over the past 50 years, the trend in the lapse rate has a spatial variability, positive in North China and negative in SW-China.


  18. Wu, G., A. Duan, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, and K. Yang, 2013: 青藏高原极端天气气候变化及其环境效应, Chinese Journal of Naure, 35(3), 167-171, doi:10.3969/j.issn.0253-9608.2013.03.002.

    After summarizing climate change in the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on global climate, we proposed research foci of the NSFC programme "Extreme weather and climate changes and its environmental effects over the Tibetan Plateau"


  19. He, Y., K. Yang, T. Yao, and J. He, 2012: 基于 WRF 模式对青藏高原一次强降水的模拟, Plateau Meteorology, 31(5), 1183-1191.

    Presented a preliminary exploration of parameterization options for the simulation of a heavy rain event in the Tibetan Plateau


  20. Qin, J., K. Yang, T. Koike, H. Lu, Y. Ma, and X. Xu, 2012: Evaluation of AIRS Precipitable Water Vapor against Ground-based GPS Measurements over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surroundings, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90C, 87-98, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2012-C06.

    In this study, GPS signals are used to retrieve the precipitable water vapor (PWV) at sites deployed in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. Then, they are applied to validate the AIRS PWV product. The results indicate that the AIRS PWV is underestimated and the analysis shows that the possible reason for this is that the cloud clearing algorithm does not perform well in this region.


  21. Zhang, R., T. Koike, X. Xu, Y. Ma, and K. Yang, 2012: A China-Japan Cooperative JICA Atmospheric Observing Network over the Tibetan Plateau (JICA/Tibet Project) : An Overviews, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90C, 1-16, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2012-C01.

    JICA (Japan International Co-operation Agency) Tibet meteorological project was implemented during 2005-2009 to enhance the capability of monitoring the Plateau atmosphere. Based on the project data, the land surface models was improved, GPS data was assimilated for disaster prediction, and several processes were presented to reveal how the Plateau impacts vortex, water vapor transport, and summer rainfall.


  22. Cheng, C.K.C., K.M. Lam, Y.T.A. Leung, K. Yang, H.W. Li Danny, and C.P. Cheung Sherman, 2011: Wind-induced natural ventilation of re-entrant bays in a high-rise building, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 99(2-3), 79–90, doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2010.11.002.

    Based on CFD technique, this paper reports the effect of wind on natural ventilation and pollutant transport of re-entrant bays of high buildings, which are important for dangerous gases and disease dispersion.


  23. Chen, X., Y. Ma, H. Kelder, Z. Su, and K. Yang, 2011: On the behaviour of the tropopause folding events over the Tibetan Plateau, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5113-5122, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5113-2011.

    A set of high resolution radiosonde data over the Tibetan Plateau is used to analyse the themal tropopause characters. The radiosonde temperature profiles in winter time over the TP exhibit a multiple tropopause (MT) frequently. MT events during this time are associated with tropopause folds near the subtropical westerly jet. And the MT consistently varied with the movement of the jet.


  24. Guo, X., K. Yang, and Y. Chen, 2011: Weakening sensible heat source over the Tibetan Plateau revisited: effects of the land-atmosphere thermal coupling, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 104(1-2), 1-12, doi:10.1007/s00704-010-0328-1.

    This study addresses possible changes in the land-atmosphere thermal coupling strength, which is indicated by the bulk transfer coefficient (CH) parameterized by combining Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and routine measurements during 1981-2006, and their effects on the sensible heat flux (H) trends over the Tibetan Plateau.


  25. Lu, N., J. Qin, K. Yang, Y. Gao, X. Xu, and T. Koike, 2011: On the use of GPS measurements for MODIS precipitable water vapor evaluation over southern Tibet, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D23117, doi:10.1029/2011JD016160.

    In this study, the MODIS precipitable water vapor (PWV) product is validated against the GPS PWV retrievals distributed over the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. The results indicate that the MODIS product performs well in the region above 3000 m above sea level; however, it has the positive bias in the area below this elevation. This bias can be corrected by a simple line relationship.


  26. Yang, K., X. Guo, J. He, J. Qin, and T. Koike, 2011: On the Climatology and Trend of the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau: An Experiments-Supported Revisit, J. Clim., 24(5), 1525-1541, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3848.1.

    This study provides a state-of-the-art estimate of the atmospheric heating components and their total over the Tibetan Plateau, with the aid of high-accuracy experimental data, an updated land surface model, and carefully selected satellite data. By comparing with the previous estimates, the new result seems more reliable, especially in three aspects: different seasonality, different regional pattern, and different trend.


  27. Yang, K., X. Guo, and B. Wu, 2011: Recent trends in surface sensible heat flux on the Tibetan Plateau, Sci. China Ser. D., 54(1), 19-28, doi:10.1007/s11430-010-4036-6.

    Based on a newly-developed scheme, this work estimated the trend of sensible heat flux on the Tibetan Plateau over the last three decades warming period. Results from the new method show that annual mean sensible heat flux has weakened by 2% per decade. Two commonly used empirical methods showed high uncertainties in heat flux trend estimates, either 7% negative trend per decade or negligible trend.


  28. Zhou, X., W. Wan, B. Zhao, X. Yue, and Z. Ren, 2010: Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis on the Thermospheric Total Mass Density Retrieved From CHAMP Observation, Chinese Journal of Space Science, 30(5), 228-234, doi:10.11728/cjss2010.03.228.

    The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to study the thermospheric total mass density at the altitude of 400 km with the data obtained from Germany CHAMP satellite during the interval from 2003 to 2007, when the solar activity is in declining period. We obtain the solar cycle and yearly variations of the thermospheric total mass density. It is found that (1) The total mass density was obviously affected by the solar activity, the correlation coefficient between solar cycle variation component of and F107 index can reach to 94.5%. At the mid- and high-latitudes, the amplitude of solar cycle variation is larger in south hemisphere than in north one. The amplitude of the solar cycle variation is decreased as the latitudes change from lower to higher. At low-latitudes there exists a structure of double crests which is recently known as the equatorial mass density anomaly (EMA). (2) In the yearly variation of the total mass density, there is a seasonal variation that the density is larger in winter than in summer. The amplitude of the yearly variation of density increases with solar F107 index as well as the absolute latitude. Comparing the result of CHAMP data with the output of NRLMSISE00 model under the input of same condition of the observation, we find that both the solar cycle and the yearly variations of thermospheric total mass density are in good agreement. Even though, the latitude difference of the solar cycle variation of is a little bigger from NRLMSISE00 than CHAMP data and there is no EMA structure in NRLMSISE00 model. Furthermore, there is an obvious semiannual variation component while analyzing the NRLMSISE00 data without 130-day-wide sliding window. Thus it is considered that, with the restriction of CHAMP orbit, the 130-day-wide sliding window may smooth out the semiannual component, as well as the higher. It is concluded that the present results are meaningful in the study of the thermospheric climatology.


  29. Qin, J., K. Yang, S. Liang, and X. Guo, 2009: The altitudinal dependence of recent rapid warming over the Tibetan Plateau, Clim. Change, 97(1-2), 321-327, doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9733-9.

    In this study, the warming rates at different elevations are computed using the observational temperatures at the weather stations over the Tibetan Plateau, and then they are used to validate the corresponding warming rates based upon the MODIS temperature product. After ensuring the reliability of the warming rates derived from the MODIS temperatures, they are used to derive the warming rates at different elevations over the entire Tibetan Plateau.


  30. Yang, K., J. Qin, X. Guo, D. Zhou, and Y. Ma, 2009: Method Development for Estimating Sensible Heat Flux over the Tibetan Plateau from CMA Data, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48(12), 2474-2486, doi:10.1175/2009JAMC2167.1.

    This study at first evaluates three widely used bulk schemes against Tibet instrumental flux data, which shows that large uncertainties exist in surface sensible heat flux estimates, because of without diurnal variations of atmospheric stability. To improve the estimate, a new method is developed to disaggregate coarse-resolution meteorological data to hourly according to statistical relationships derived from high-resolution experimental data, and then sensible heat flux is estimated from the hourly data by a well-validated flux scheme. Evaluations against heat flux observations in summer and against net radiation observations in winter indicate that the new method performs much better than previous schemes.


  31. Tsuang, B., M. Chou, Y. Zhang, A. Roesch, and K. Yang, 2008: Evaluations of Land-Ocean Skin Temperatures of the ISCCP Satellite Retrievals and the NCEP and ERA Reanalyses, J. Clim., 21(2), 308-330, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1502.1.

    This study evaluates the global skin temperature (ST) datasets of the ISCCP D satellite product, the ISCCP FD satellite product, ERA-40, NCEP2, and NCEP1. First, it's found that the monthly anomalies of all the datasets are correlated to each other and to most of the ground-truth stations with correlation coefficients >0.50. Then, the clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and upward surface longwave radiation (USLR) are calculated to evaluate the qualities of the 5 datasets.

    此研究评估了5 个数据集的全球表层温度(ST),这5个数据集分别是ISCCP D、ISCCP Fd卫星产品、ERA-40、NCEP2和NCEP1再分析资料。首先,所有数据集的月距平有较好的彼此相关性,并且与大部分地面观测站资料相关系数大于0.50。然后计算了晴空向外长波辐射(OLR)和向上地表长波辐射(USLR)来评估这5个数据集各自的特点。

  32. Yang, K., M. Rasmy, S. Rauniyar, T. Koike, K. Taniguchi, K. Tamagawa, P. Koudelova, M. Kitsuregawa, T. Nemoto, M. Yasukawa, E. Ikoma, M. Bosilovich, and S. Williams, 2007: Initial CEOP-based Review of the Prediction Skill of Operational General Circulation Models and Land Surface Models, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85A, 99-116, doi:10.2151/jmsj.85A.99.

    Using data archived in the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) project, this study presents an initial evaluation of the prediction skill of five General Circulation Models (GCMs) in term of surface water and energy at diurnal, seasonal, annual scales and three Land Surface Models (LSMs) in term of surface energy budget.


  33. Yang, K., T. Koike, H. Fujii, T. Tamura, X. Xu, L. Bian, and M. Zhou, 2004: The Daytime Evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Convection over the Tibetan Plateau: Observations and Simulations, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82(6), 1777-1792, doi:10.2151/jmsj.82.1777.

    Based on field observations, theoretical analyses, and numerical simulations, this study investigates the daytime structure and the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and convection over the Tibetan Plateau during the dry season.